History of Kerala
Kerala was first mentioned (as Keralaputra) in a third-century-BC rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka. In the last centuries BC this region became famous among the Greeks and Romans for its spices (especially pepper). During the first five centuries AD, the region was a part of Tamilakam and thus was sometimes partially controlled by the eastern Pandya and Chola dynasties, as well as by the Cheras. Jewish immigrants arrived in the first century AD, and Syrian Orthodox Christians believe that St. Thomas the Apostle visited Kerala in the same century.
Much of Kerala’s history from the sixth to eighth century AD is obscure, but Arab traders Introduced Islam later in the period. Under the Kulashekhara dynasty (c. 800-1102) Malayalam emerged as a distinct language, and Hinduism became prominent. The Cholas often controlled Kerala during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. By the beginning of the fourteenth century, Ravi Varma Kulashek-hara of Venad established a short-lived supremacy over southern India. After his death, Kerala became a conglomeration of warring chieftaincies, among which the most important were Calicut in the north and Venad in the south.
The era of foreign intervention began in 1498, when Vasco da Gama landed near Calicut. In the sixteenth century the Portuguese superseded the Arab traders and dominated the commerce of Malabar. Their attempt to establish sovereignty was thwarted by the zamorin (hereditary ruler) of Calicut. The Dutch ousted the Portuguese in the seventeenth century. Marthanda Varma ascended the Venad throne in 1729 and crushed Dutch expansionist designs at the battle of Kolachel 12 years later. Mar-thanda Varma then adopted an European mode of martial discipline and expanded the new southern state of Travancore. His alliance in 1757 with the raja of the central state of Cochin, against the zamorin , enabled Cochin to survive. By 1806, however, Cochin and Travancore, as well as Mala-bar in the north, had become subject states under the British Madras Presidency.
Two years after India’s independence was achieved in 1947, Cochin and Travancore were united as the Travancore-Cochin state. The modern state of Kerala was constituted on a linguistic basis in 1956 when Malabar and the Kasargod taluka of South Kanara were added to Travancore-Cochin. The southern portion of the former Travancore-Cochin state was attached to Tamil Nadu. Population (2001) Total 31,841,374; Rural 23,574,449; Urban 8,266,925.
Why should world called Kerala is ” Gods Own Country”
Actually world never knows the deepness of refreshing culture of great Kerala, our people suffering a lot of miserable and problems in several places in OUR country( INDIA). But in Kerala, really that invisible power touching in every keralites,because of that refreshing culture. Culture never is same in all places, that should depended only in people living there. it lies along the hardworking and unity in all aspects. We can compare our MIND to a MONKEY, it jumps branches to branches within times, and therefore never jump means STICK on a one strong decision. Here Keralites stick on powerful decision. Refreshing the mind is a great task to do something and grasp something. Pupils like schools and college level starts the basic art form of Kerala, also performing in famous ancient temples.
Resources of Kerala
Kerala has great hydroelectric potential, and the Idukki complex is the largest power-generating facility.
The educational system, a developed banking system, and excellent transportation facilities provide optimum conditions for economic development. Agriculture is the state’s main economic activity. commercial plantings on less than half of the total land under cultivation earn a sizable amount of foreign exchange but have also necessitated the importation of food for local consumption. Kerala’s principal cash yielders are perennial areca nut, cardamom, cashew nut, coconut, coffee, ginger, pepper, rubber, and tea; the major annual food crops are rice, pulses, lentils, sorghum, and tapioca. Commercial poultry farming is well developed. The forests yield valuable timbers such as ebony, rosewood, and teak, as well as industrial raw materials such as bamboo (used in the paper and rayon industries), wood pulp, char-coal, gums, and resins. Foreigners regularly attend the tea and timber auctions held in Kochi. Kerala ranks first among Indian states in fish production. Unemployment is acute, and a high level of education among the jobless accentuates the problem.
Traditional low-wage cottage industries, such as the processing of coconut fibre and cashews or weaving, employ most workers. More than one-fourth of Kerala’s workers provide services. Food processing is the largest industrial employer. Major industrial products include fertilizers, chemicals, electrical equipment, titanium, aluminium, plywood, ceramics, and synthetic fabrics. Kerala is connected with the states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka by national highways. A railway coming from the east through the Palghat Gap meets with a railway running from north to south through the state and on to Kanniyakumari, the southernmost town of India. There are three major ports – Koz-hikode, Kochi-Ernakulam, and Alappuzha – that handle both coastal and foreign traffic.
Kochi-Ernakulam also has major shipyard and oil refining facilities and serves as the headquarters for Indian coast guard and navy commands. More than 1,770 km of inland waterways form main arteries for carrying bulk freight to and from the ports.Kerala has the most enterprising and industrious people in the country. There are nearly 2 million people (i.e. about 7% of the total population) from the State working in the Gulf countries and earning the valuable foreign exchange for the Country. Kerala is also the epitome of secularism and a masterpiece of unity in diversity. People of three major religion co-exist here. Temples, Churches and Mosques dot the State. There are Jewish settlers and their Synagogues too.
Kerala has a unicameral legislature – the Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) comprises 140 elected members and one member nominated by the governor from the Anglo-Indian community. For provincial administration the state is divided into 14 districts; these in turn are subdivided for revenue purposes into talukas and villages. Kerala’s polity has often experienced the spectre of unstable governments. The proliferation of political parties has made coalition governments inevitable.