Thursday, February 22

Create Sea-Water Dam's For a Brighter Tomorrow.

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Our earth is covered by 2/3 undrinkable Sea Water.  Many countries and big business’s have spent billions of dollar’s trying to convert Salt water into drinkable water. It’s called Desalination, sea water is refined every day and millions is being spent on these projects. But is it perfect?, is it effective??

Our fore father’s guided us, but we refused their teachings, and it has left our lands barren, and wasted. Africa is the the most geographical situated continent for the sustainability of life. Due to the high temperature and large desert area’s. Its the perfect experimental beaker. 

My Suggestion is Man Made low level Sea Water Dam’s, a suitable geographical location has to be discovered. where sea water can be piped into a once fertile but now arid and desolate area,(Kalahari Desert or Sahara Desert) creating Man made Sea Water Dam’s. The Pipeline used for the transportation of the water to the specific area, would be constructed out of Durable and non Bio- degradable material(Tyre’s and Plastic Refuse) and it would be fitted with special plastic molded turbines (mostly reusable plastic would be used in this project), these turbines would create much needed hydro energy, (My alternative idea to Copper Electrical Cabling is to use Sea Water to transport the electrical Current over long distance. * without the hassle of cable theft and expensive copper cabling*) to sustain village’s and communities Along the path towards the designated area (sea water dam’s). The geographically chosen area must have high solar concentration, the man made sea water dam’s would then desalinated naturally, as the high solar concentration would evaporate the water from those dam’s creating higher and more frequent precipitation in a once arid area. Creating rainfall of clean drinkable water. A different eco-system would be created over time. A large enough area must be allocated for a greater yield, by creating a large area for absorption this would lead to better precipitation.

Arid area previously fertile should be tested and be considered, for better natural water filtration. This project would be the key to our future, ‘HYDRO CITIES in deserts’ using the power of Mother Nature in our arsenal to combat poverty, energy depletion, water scarcity and create a life sustainable environment.Please visit my Facebook page and read my article’s and feel free to comment.

South Africa has just recently also implemented this concept of Desalination.

Here is an article, in one of South Africa’s Media.

By Emily van Rijswijck

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South Africa’s biggest seawater desalination plant has opened in the seaside town of Mossel Bay in the Western Cape province. This facility will ensure that the economic hub achieves greater water security and economic growth going into the future.

The plant, which has a capacity of 15-million megalitres per day, started operating in September but currently puts out only 5-million megalitres of water, as the area has had excellent rains and dams supplying the town are full.

The 5-million megalitres are used entirely by the synthetic petroleum plant of PetroSA, the town’s biggest employer and biggest user of water. PetroSA consumes almost as much water daily as the municipality itself.

“The development of a desalination plant was always envisaged for the near future but after the town was faced with a severe drought, the project was escalated,” confirms Harry Hill, spokesperson for the municipality. 

Worst drought in 130 years

The drought, which was the worst in 130 years, reached such critical proportions at one point that the Eden District area in the south of the province was declared a disaster area. In the Eastern Cape the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality had to impose water restrictions for almost three years as a result.

The enforced water restrictions in Mossel Bay meant that the water usage for the entire municipality was about 14-million megalitres a day.

“So the desalination plant has the capacity to meet the town’s entire water needs should this again be necessary,” adds Hill.

The project was jointly funded by the National Treasury and PetroSA who contributed R92-million (US$11-million) and R80-million ($9.6-million) respectively to the total project cost of R210 million ($25-million).

Apart from the seawater desalination plant, the municipality also sank several boreholes and built a plant to reclaim waste water for industrial purposes.

“While the new water sources, such as the seawater desalination plant, now seem to be superfluous, it must be remembered that Mossel Bay periodically suffers severe droughts,” says municipal manager Michele Gratz.

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My idea is not the same its, completely different. Eskom is already busy with building mini Salt water dams on mountains in South Africa for creating turbine electricity,

Article dated. 01 April 2011.

By Paddy Hartdegen

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The severe power shortages facing Cape Town – coupled with the apparent reluctance to extend nuclear power in the city – has resulted in Eskom earmarking 17 sites for the erection of plants to generate electricity using wind and wave energy. The sites are beyond Still Bay where a pumped storage scheme is located, similar to the Palmiet power station near Grabouw. It will see 17 salt-water dams of about 100 hectares each being built near the coast. The dams will hold between 10- and 30-million cubic metres of water. According to Eskom some of the dams will be as large as the Upper Steenbras Dam, which holds 31-million cubic metres of water. Cape Town does not have enough fresh water resources to power additional pumped storage schemes or provide additional generating plants using fresh water for cooling purposes. In terms of Eskom’s scheme, seawater will be pumped using wind and wave energy, to a dam in the mountains where it will be stored. When electricity demand reaches a peak in the Western Cape, the seawater will be released to flow through a waterway and will drive turbines that will be used to generate additional electricity. Each of the dams will have an underground pipeline with a diameter of between five and seven metres that will span distances of between one and six kilometres. Roads, a transmission line, a seawater outfall and wind pumps will cover about 200 hectares at each dam. Eskom is due to conduct a full environmental impact assessment before going ahead with plans aimed at augmenting the Western Cape’s potentially serious power shortages. Concerns have been expressed that the huge salt-water dams could contaminate Cape Town’s scarce fresh water resources. Four of the proposed sites are in the Table Mountain National Park and others are in the Kogelberg Nature Reserve, De Hoop Nature Reserve, Maanskynskop Nature Reserve and the Agulhas National Park. >

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That is their Idea, but My Idea is similar but majorly different, initially it would be costly. But the benefits will be shared by all and that would out weight the costs. I want South Africa or ?? to create man made self sustaining eco-system, I would be massive sea-water pools or Fresh salt water dam’s in Desert Area’s of South Africa. I would like to reiterate, that items that are non bio-degradable items has to be used, as salt water is the best bio-degrader; (from plastic turbines, to plastic, plastic and rubber sea bed lining and rubber pre-cast piping). Why?? To rid our landfill’s with these man made non bio degradable rubbish. Plastic and Rubber. I would promote big business’s, to manufacturer pre-casted Plastic and Rubber piping, To transport the abundant supply of sea water to low lying Arid Area’s. Suitable geographical area’s must be located to house this project. But my idea is simple.

Those dam’s would be land locked and it would also lined with the special rubber and plastic material to prevent absorption of salt content into the ground (Like a Gigantic Plastic Pool but this would protect and preventing the land becoming infertile). So a low lying Arid, desolate desert area’s, should be cultivated for man made Salt Water dam’s project (One or several massive lake’s must be created, surrounded with smaller (Rain water Catching Dams) . The special piping must be fitted with plastic turbine’s that would be generating hydro-energy (this will create clean electrical power to the communities, towns and villages en-route to the Man made lake’s, as well as enough Electric power for the Resort and Hotels surrounding these Salt Water Dam’s. As I said before Arid area’s must be chosen for the high Solar Concentration. Mother nature is our solution to self sustaining eco-system with drinkable water. Those Hotels and Resorts would create work and that increase the financial infrastructure from a once Arid and Desolate Area. We need to think bio friendly and work in-conjunction with mother nature as she is the answer to our survival. We need to look at the broader picture and not just at the aspect of desalination and hydro energy. The same funds that was spent, on those projects could have created cities and flourishing town in deserts, thus creating more living space. Once and eco-system has been established. The financial reward to the inhabitants of the land would be far reaching, The benefits out weights, the initial cost.

1. The reduction of non bio-degradable waste products.(like Plastic and Rubber),

2. The pre-cast piping fitted with specially created plastic turbine’s would create hydro energy (Clean Electrical Engery)

3. . Once arid land would become a metropolis. The all year round warm and hot weather would create perfect location (filled with Hotel, Resorts and Towns)

4, This will reduce unemployment. (work for inhabitant near and around this Metropolis)

5. This would create a revenue from a once arid area.(the resort and hotels revenue would be paying for the maintenance and continuous supply of sea water)

6. Inland salt farms would be created, The Hot sun would dry the man made salt lake’s quicker, even more dam’s would be created and more employment(Quicker return on salt cultivation with a host of Salt water lake’s).

7. Promoting the use of Rubber and Plastic would reduce waste.(More plastic and rubber piping, for additional salt farming. Sea water resorts, Sea water plumbing and drainage)

8. The best water cleanser is mother nature. Dirty water, stagnant water and sea water. All this is cleansed by mother nature through water evaporation and condensation and then precipitation

9 Dry and hot weather, and clear sky’s, (found here in Southern Africa) this will cause higher evaporation, water condensation and evaporation in previously dry and arid area’s. Creating high rain fall.

10 Instead of just one massive deep dam, create a host of smaller wider and low level dam’s for quicker, evaporation. The larger and greater the area the better chance of evaporation and precipitation.

11. This will create a striving economy, more employment, a self sustaining eco-system, and more living space and lessen the influx and concentration of all ready over crowded Major Cities.

My idea not only solve the energy crisis, but the employment, recycling (at it’s best), unemployment, scarce drink-water, and increases the Country’s Internal Revenue. A win win situation, for big business and for Countries’ involved and it’s inhabitants.

I know many geologist would disagree on this project, that pumping salt water in to non-coastal area would cause havoc to soil, it would render that specific area lifeless.Due to Salt-water intrusion. I have explained that effort must be made to line out the river with strong enough plastic material ) to prevent saline leaks. This will reduce the risk of Salt-water soil intrusion. I have reiterated that my idea is to utilize arid area’s where the salt concentration would not make a difference in the soil content. But it would cause rainfall in area’s of high drought.(Why use Plastic Material, when a Concrete Structure’s would be more stronger- Reason due to soil erosion the turgidity of the soil would not support normal concrete structure’s.and would be very expensive.) (Town’s and cities around these dam’s  would be Solar Power enabled, It would have Hydro Energy and the Building would be constructed by Precasted Plastic Solar Paneled Structures *another of my invention’s*)

My idea is not new but different I want to merge everything I have read and thought of and create a sustainable environment.  My idea is not a greenhouse effect but creating climate change not only in that specific location but the whole region. 

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Alok Jha, green technology correspondent

guardian.co.uk,  Tuesday 2 September 2008 

Vast greenhouses that use seawater to grow crops could be combined with solar power plants to provide food, fresh water and clean energy in deserts, under an ambitious proposal from a team of architects and engineers.

The Sahara Forest project would marry huge greenhouses with concentrated solar power (CSP), which uses mirrors to focus the sun’s rays and generate heat and electricity. The installations would turn deserts into lush patches of vegetation, according to its designers, and without the need to dig wells for fresh water, which has depleted aquifers in many parts of the world.

The team includes one of the lead architects behind Cornwall’s Eden project and demonstration plants are already running in Tenerife, Oman and the United Arab Emirates.

Plants cannot grow in deserts because of the extreme temperatures and lack of nutrients and water. Charlie Paton, one of the Sahara Forest team and the inventor of the seawater greenhouse concept, said his technology was a proven way to transform arid environments.

“Plants need light for growth but they don’t like heat beyond a certain point,” said Paton. Above a particular temperature, the amount of water lost through the holes in its leaves, called stomata, gets so large that a plant will shut down photosynthesis and cannot grow.

The greenhouses work by using the solar farm to power seawater evaporators and then pump the damp, cool air through the greenhouse. This reduces the temperature by about 15C compared to that outside. At the other end of the greenhouse from the evaporators, the water vapor is condensed. Some of this fresh water is used to water the crops, while the rest can be used for the essential task of cleaning the solar mirrors.

“So we’ve got conditions in the greenhouse of high humidity and lower temperature,” said Paton. “The crops sitting in this slightly steamy, humid condition can grow fantastically well.”

The designers said that virtually any vegetables could be grown in the greenhouses, depending on the conditions at which it is maintained. The demonstration plants already produce lettuces, peppers, cucumbers and tomatoes. The nutrients to grow the plants could come from local seaweed or even be extracted from the seawater itself.

Michael Pawlyn of Exploration Architecture, who worked on the Eden Project for seven years and is now part of the Sahara Forest team, said the seawater greenhouse and CSP provided substantial synergies for each other. “Both technologies work extremely well in hot, dry desert locations – CSP produces a lot of waste heat and we’d be able to use that to evaporate more seawater from the greenhouse,” he said. “And CSP needs a supply of clean, demineralized water in order for the [electricity generating]turbines to function and to keep the mirrors at peak output. It just so happens the seawater greenhouse produces large quantities of this.”

Paton said that the greenhouse produces more than five times the fresh water needed to water the plants inside so, in addition to producing water to clean the CSP mirrors, some of it can be released into the local environment. This can create a local microclimate just outside the greenhouses for hardier plants such as jatropha, an energy crop that can be turned into biofuel. The ability to create similar microclimates has already been proven in the demonstration greenhouses Paton has built.

The cost of the Sahara Forest project could be relatively low since both CSP and seawater greenhouses are proven technologies – the designers estimate that building 20 hectares of greenhouses combined with a 10MW CSP scheme would cost around €80m (£65m). Paton said groups in countries across the Middle East, including UAE, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar and Kuwait, have expressed interest in the possibility of funding demonstration projects.

He added that using seawater greenhouses could reverse the environmental damage done by the greenhouses already built in places such as Almeria in southern Spain. More than 40,000 hectares of greenhouses have been built in this desert region during the past 20 years to grow salad vegetables. “They take water out of the ground something like five times faster than it comes in, so the water table drops and becomes more saline. The whole of Spain is being sucked dry. If one were to convert them all to the seawater greenhouse concept, it would turn an unsustainable solution into a more sustainable one.”

“In places like Oman, they’ve effectively sterilized large areas of land by using groundwater that’s become increasingly saline,” said Pawlyn. “The beauty of the Sahara Forest scheme is that you can reverse that process and turn barren land into biologically-productive land.”

Neil Crumpton, an energy specialist at Friends of the Earth, said the potential of desert technologies was huge. “Concentrated solar power mirror arrays covering just one per cent of the Earth’s deserts could supply a fifth of all current global energy consumption. And one million tonnes of sea water could be evaporated every day from just 20,000 hectares of greenhouses.”

He added: “Governments around the world should invest serious money in these solar energy and water technologies and not be distracted by lobbyists promoting dangerous nuclear power or nuclear-powered desalination schemes.”

Harnessing the desert sun’s rays is already at the heart of an ambitious European scheme to build a €45bn (£35.7bn) super-grid that could allow countries across the continent to share renewable electricity from solar power in north Africa, wind energy in the UK and Denmark, and geothermal energy from Iceland and Italy. The north Africa solar plan has already gained political support in Europe from Gordon Brown and Nicolas Sarkozy. Though expensive, it is in line with International Energy Agency estimates that the world needs to invest more than $45tn (£22.5tn) in new energy systems over the next 30 years.

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As I have said before, I am not a scientist or geologist, I am not a lobbyist or a Politician. I am only a creative thinker. Whatever I put my mind to and I have knowledge off. I create scenario and events to support my creative idea’s.

So please Feel free to comment and correspond.  All inputs are highly appreciated.

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About Author

Thomas Neal was born and raised in the Bronx, New York. He was a bookseller before shifting to publishing where he worked at a literary development company, a creative writing website for millennials, and as a book reviewer of adult and young adult novels. He lives in New York City and is obviously a voracious reader. He has just released his debut novel and working on his second already!

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