Migration is the movement of people from one place to another by crossing the border or administrative boundary in order to settle.
Migration is part of the mobility of the population.
factors that cause migration, ie
· Economic factors (like looking for a better life in a new place)
· Factors of safety (to save themselves from natural disasters such as landslides, earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions and other natural disasters)
· Safety factors (migration that occur due to security threats such as wars, and conflicts between groups)
· Educational factors (migration happens because they want to continue their education to a higher level)
· Factors interest development (migration occurs because the area affected by development projects like construction of dams for irrigation and hydropower)
Government efforts to tackle the problems of migration, are as follows:
· Distribution of industrial development to areas
· Increasing rural incomes through intensification and the Village Unit Cooperatives
· Construction of the road network down to the villages so that the relationship between rural and urban areas to become fluent
· Increase the extension of family planning to control population growth in rural
· Development of a more complete facilities such as education and health
migration can be divided into two groups, namely: International Migration and National or Internal Migration.
International Migration, the movement of people from one country to another. This migration can be divided into three kinds: Immigration (inclusion of people from one country to another with the purpose of settling), emigration (exit of the population from one country to another), Remigrasi (the return of immigrants to their home country).
National or Internal migration, ie migration within one country. This migration consists of several types, namely urbanization, transmigration, Ruralisasi.
Urbanization is the movement from rural to urban areas with the aim of settling. Factors that led to the urbanization Want to find a job, because in the city of more jobs and higher wages, Want to gain experience in the city, want to continue their education to a higher level and so on.
Transmigration is the movement of people from the densely populated island into the sparsely populated island in the territory of Indonesia. Transmigration in Indonesia was first performed in 1905 by the Dutch government is known as colonization.
Ruralisasi is the movement of people from cities to villages with the aim of settling. Ruralisasi is the opposite of urbanization.
The impact of migration
Migration both nationally and internationally each have positive and negative impacts on the area of origin and destination areas.
The positive impact of immigration that can help meet the shortage of expertise, can add a sense of solidarity among nations, the introduction of science and technology can accelerate the transfer of technology.
The negative impact of immigration, namely the entry of foreign culture that does not comply with the personality of the nation, immigrants who entered between them sometimes has a purpose that is not good as drug dealers, political aims, and others.
The positive impact of emigration is that it can increase income for the country, especially from foreign currency exchange, can introduces culture to other nations, to reduce dependence of foreign experts.
The negative impact of emigration is an unofficial emigrants to the country’s image, a shortage of skilled and expert for the state of the deceased.
The positive impact of migration is to reduce unemployment for densely populated areas, can improve people’s lives, especially migrants, can meet the labor shortage in the area of migration destination, can accelerate the distribution of population distribution.
The negative impact of migration is the existence of social jealousy between local communities and the migrants, the neglect of the agricultural land in the area trasmigrasi because migrants do not feel at home and return to their home areas
Positive impact of urbanization that is able to reduce the number of unemployed in the villages, to meet the manpower needs of the city, improve living standards of villagers, can improve the economy in the city.
The negative impact of urbanization that is less skilled and educated in the village, the village’s agricultural productivity, rising unemployment in the cities, rising crime in the city, the emergence of slums due to the difficulty of finding housing.