Project Management

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Project management is an approach to organize from start to finish the project smoothly. When project management involves a set of projects promoting the same objective, we talk about program management.

Project management is a management that is characterized by:

     * The irreversibility of the operations of the participants,
     * A high degree of freedom of the actions of participants,
     * An organization dedicated to be scalable and temporary
     * The cash investment can be negative,
     * A strong influence of exogenous variables on the project.
Called project finalized a set of activities and actions undertaken in order to meet a defined need within fixed time periods and within the budget allocated. Unlike operations that are repetitive processes, the essence of a project is to be innovative and unique .

Project management is a temporary action with a beginning and an end, mobilizing identified resources (human, material, equipment, raw materials, informational and financial) during implementation, which has a cost and is therefore subject to budgeting of resources and an independent review of the enterprise.

The project outcomes are called supplies or “deliverables”.

A project, once it is sufficiently complex and important issues, is a set of actions to a definite result, known and measurable. The project is limited in time and always has a concept of novelty and change.

We distinguish:

    * Project-work whose result is unique (a bridge, software),
    *-Product and projects (a new car, a new drink) whose objective is the development of one or a range of product (s) or service (s), which will be broadcast over or lesser extent.

A project may also consist of a rationalization complex internal, such as phasing of operations of two companies after their merger, even as two states after German reunification.

The project is an extraordinary goal (in the literal sense of the word) that combines five elements:

    * Functional: response to a need
    * Technique: compliance with the specifications and constraints for implementing
    * Organizational: a compliance mode (roles, functions, culture, resistance to change) of the target structure
    * Deadlines: deadlines (planning)
    * Costs: within budget

 SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic (Compliance resources), Temporal)

The project can also be part of a more complex, often called program. The program then covers all the components can lead to the final result in all its dimensions: legal, marketing, IT, technical, personnel training, organization, logistics, communication, etc. …

There are some standards of project management. One can for example include the PMBOK (Project Management Body Of Knowledge), the PRINCE2 (Projects IN Controlled Environments), the ICB (International Project Management Association Competence Baseline), and the international standard ISO 21500.

Management by project is one point of concord:

    * Steps of excellence and total quality (including Six Sigma),
    * The modern tools of management and socio-technical
    * The best management schools .


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