Problems of Technical Education In Pakistan

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There are many problems in pakistan for getting Technical Education.I am pointing out some of these problems.

1. Shortage of industry

2. Non availibility of professional level technical education.

3. No scope of higher education.

4. Technical people have no good technical knowledge.

5. Govenment can not takes interest for advancement in education.

6. shortage of technical proffesionals

and now we will discuss these points in detail given below.

SHORTAGE OF INDUSTRY

In pakistan due to energy crise now a days , also effect on our industry in result there is shortage industries in pakistan.no investor is ready to invest in pakistan.and existing industry is shifting to neighbour countries.

Professional colleages

There is shortage of professional level colleages

Technical knoledge

The peoples which get technical education have no good knoledge of machines.

GOVERNMENT INTERSTS

Govt should take interst in technical education

Technical Professionals

shortage of technical professionals in the country

2. Solution to solve technical problems

 help one prepare immediate gainful employment.

 help one develop the best of his abilities in technical skills.

 help one develop social skills and competencies.

 help one develop industrial work habits.

 help one develop interest and appreciation of the industrial processes concerned with planning, production,   operation and design.

Technical Education Committee appointed by the Council of Technical Education made a survey in 1950 and recommended

Technical education should be treated as an integral part of the educational system.

Technical High Schools should be established in order to introduce a technical bias in secondary education.

In order to produce supervisory personnel for industry, Polytechnics should be established as early as possible.

To meet the requirement for skilled workers the institutions like trade schools and artisan schools should be provided.

Directorates of Technical Education should be responsible for the control and development of technical education .

Failure and Achivement

The question is how much of the education system should be vocational and how much should be general in character.  To strike a balance between the two is indeed a challenge.  Several developing countries, including countries in the Asian region have a long history of vocational and technical education and training; and they have vocational or diversified secondary education systems.  India has had a diversified secondary education system for a long time.  Even in the 19th century India, there was a reasonably good vocational and technical system (see Crane, 1965).  However, after its slow demise during the colonial period, India has had to start afresh on vocationalisation since independence.  It is more or less the same situation in the other developing countries of the region, many of them having had a long colonial and/or feudal rule; only after in­dependence, and particularly since the 1950s, has increasing attention been given to vocational education.  Initial efforts at vocationalisation in Sri Lanka date back to the 1930s and in Philippines to 1920s.  A Vocational Education Act was passed in 1927 in Philippines stating that the “controlling purpose of vocational education is to fit pupils (persons) for useful employment” (Unesco, 1984, Philippines, p. 11).  Malaysia established its first technical college in 1906.   South Korea and Taiwan placed high priority on special vocational education at an early stage of industrialisation process in the respective countries.  The very first educational development plan of Pakistan en­visaged technical and commercial education as an integral part of general education, with diversification of the secondary education curriculum.  The National Education Commission in Bangladesh, appointed immediately after independence, recom­mended in 1972 the diversification of secondary education from Grade IX onwards.  China had long emphasised vocational education in its school curriculum.  After 1978, quite a number of government senior secondary schools were converted into vocational schools.  Polytechnic institutions, vocational schools, institutes of technical education, and technical colleges figure prominently in the educational systems in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and India.  Vocational and technical schools received serious attention in Japan even during the 19th century (Yamamoto, 1994).  The “Taiwan miracle” owes to its system of VET (Boyd and Lee, 1995, p. 195).  In several countries of the region many academic secondary schools that concentrated for a long period on preparing students for university entry, tried to become multi-purpose institutions to serve a broad spectrum of students and needs, including specific types of occupational training.  In addition, various types and models of specialised secondary training in­stitutions have been created in several countries to meet different middle level manpower needs. 

All countries in the Asian region have, however, not accorded equal degree of attention to VET.  As a result, they are at various levels of development of vocational education.   As the Asian Development Bank (1991, pp. 53-55) categorised the several Asian countries, and described, Korea stands as “a leading example” of how governments can promote an extensive school-based VET; Singapore had developed a “comprehensive vocational training infrastructure,” forging strong linkages between education institutions and training agencies; Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Sri Lanka have “fairly developed” vocational and technical education systems – both in public and private schools; the agrarian economies of Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Myanmar have “patchy” systems of vocational and technical education; and India and China, the two big countries on the globe, suffer from “prejudice against manual work” and hence have “lopsided” education development structures including for VET.  On the other extreme, Japan has the most developed and well-established infrastructure providing school based as well as enterprise based VET.

The nature of VET also differs between several countries.  Vocational education in many countries generally refers to inculcation of vocational and technical skills relevant for specific occupations.  In a few countries, vocational education is also general in curriculum.  For example, vocational education in Japan and Korea is fairly general in character.  General skills, broad attitudes and discipline are more valued than vocational skills per se in labour market.  Accordingly schools, even vocational schools emphasise, for example, in Korea, moral education and discipline (Green, 1997, p. 50).

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