Types of Bone Marrow Transplantation

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Bone marrow is the tissue found in the spongiosa of the bone cavity. Bone marrow 

has a normal function-rich progenitor or stem cell, which will have a 

proliferation of mature erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. Bone marrow 

transplantation is a process of replacing the bone marrow of diseased or damaged 

bone marrow with normal function.

Types of Bone Marrow Transplantation

There are two types of primary bone marrow transplants: autologous and allogeneic. 

Types of transplants depends on the relationship between the recipient and donor. 

Autologous transplant is a transplant to collect (planting) the patient’s own bone 

marrow, placed in cold storage (cryopreserved) and infused back to patients after 

administration of a specific treatment regimen. Transplantation of allogeneic bone 

marrow transplantation is a property of others to a patient. There are several 

types of allogeneic transplants, each type named after the donor. The types are: 

singenik-occur if the donor and recipient are identical twins;-related donor has a 

family relationship with the recipient, usually siblings; unrelated-donor does not 

have a relationship with the recipient. Autologous transplantation is mainly used 

in the treatment of disease, the patient’s bone marrow containing stem cell 

maturation can be adequately erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets are mature. 

The main standard allogeneic transplantation is a suitable donor. Examination of 

tissue type of patients and potential donors is the first step in identifying 

whether a patient is getting the right donor. To determine a person’s tissue type, 

a small number of peripheral blood leukocyte surface antigen retrieved and 

analyzed. These form a system of HLA antigens (human leukocyte antigen), which 

plays a role in immune surveillance by constantly identifying substances that are 

derived from self or not. A match is best if the patient and donor antigen match. 

Good opportunity to find a suitable donor occurred in siblings. The possibility to 

match a person in the general population barnpir reach one in 20,000. If a 

potential donor has been identified by HLA type, made MLC (mixed lymphocyte 

culture). MLC carried out to obtain further certainty between patient and donor.

The final choice in the provision of donor is a donor search does not have a 

relationship at all. National Bone Marrow Donor Registry Program (NBMDR) 

dictirikan in 1987 for the purpose. Central register has more than 600,000 bone 

marrow donor is available, all of whom had undergone the determination of tissue 

type and have a desire to donate her bone marrow.

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