Bone marrow is the tissue found in the spongiosa of the bone cavity. Bone marrow
has a normal function-rich progenitor or stem cell, which will have a
proliferation of mature erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. Bone marrow
transplantation is a process of replacing the bone marrow of diseased or damaged
bone marrow with normal function.
Types of Bone Marrow Transplantation
There are two types of primary bone marrow transplants: autologous and allogeneic.
Types of transplants depends on the relationship between the recipient and donor.
Autologous transplant is a transplant to collect (planting) the patient’s own bone
marrow, placed in cold storage (cryopreserved) and infused back to patients after
administration of a specific treatment regimen. Transplantation of allogeneic bone
marrow transplantation is a property of others to a patient. There are several
types of allogeneic transplants, each type named after the donor. The types are:
singenik-occur if the donor and recipient are identical twins;-related donor has a
family relationship with the recipient, usually siblings; unrelated-donor does not
have a relationship with the recipient. Autologous transplantation is mainly used
in the treatment of disease, the patient’s bone marrow containing stem cell
maturation can be adequately erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets are mature.
The main standard allogeneic transplantation is a suitable donor. Examination of
tissue type of patients and potential donors is the first step in identifying
whether a patient is getting the right donor. To determine a person’s tissue type,
a small number of peripheral blood leukocyte surface antigen retrieved and
analyzed. These form a system of HLA antigens (human leukocyte antigen), which
plays a role in immune surveillance by constantly identifying substances that are
derived from self or not. A match is best if the patient and donor antigen match.
Good opportunity to find a suitable donor occurred in siblings. The possibility to
match a person in the general population barnpir reach one in 20,000. If a
potential donor has been identified by HLA type, made MLC (mixed lymphocyte
culture). MLC carried out to obtain further certainty between patient and donor.
The final choice in the provision of donor is a donor search does not have a
relationship at all. National Bone Marrow Donor Registry Program (NBMDR)
dictirikan in 1987 for the purpose. Central register has more than 600,000 bone
marrow donor is available, all of whom had undergone the determination of tissue
type and have a desire to donate her bone marrow.