Medical Journals Mammary Tumor

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Cancer is a global problem in recent decades. Population growth, the increase in 

couples who are giving birth and the number of elderly will further increase the 

risk of cancer, then the increased use of new medicines, foodstuff, cosmetics, 

lifestyle and smoking habits will also trigger the onset of cancer (Fajarwati, 

2007). In addition, cancer is one of the many diseases that cause suffering and 

death in humans. In western countries, cancer is the second leading cause of death 

after cardiovascular diseases (Ama in Admin, 2007). It is estimated, the world’s 

cancer deaths per year to reach 4.3 million and 2.3 million are found in 

developing countries. The number of new cases per year of 5.9 million worldwide 

and 3 million of them are found in developing countries (Parkin et al 1988 in 

Admin, 2007). Meanwhile, in Indonesia there are an estimated 100 new cancer 

patients per 100,000 population per year.

The prevalence of cancer increased from year to year due to increased life 

expectancy, socioeconomic, and changing disease patterns (Tjindarbumi in Admin, 

2007). According to the Household Health Survey (Survey) 1992, cancer ranks ninth 

out of 10 biggest disease the leading cause of death in Indonesia. Figures the 

proportion of cancer in Indonesia is likely to increase from 3.4 (Survey, 1980) to 

4.3 (Survey, 1986), 4.4 (Survey, 1992), and 5.0 (Survey, 1995). Health Profile 

1995 data shows that the proportion of cancer admitted to the hospital in 

Indonesia has increased from 4.0% to 4.1%. In addition, the increase in the 

proportion of patients who were hospitalized was also an increase in hospital 

Jakarta in 1993 and 1994 from 4.5% to 4.6% (Admin, 2007). According to WHO 8-9% of 

women will develop breast cancer. This makes breast cancer as the type of the most 

common cancer in women. Each year more than 250,000 new cases of breast cancer 

diagnosed in Europe and approximately 175 000 in the United States. According to 

WHO, in 2000 an estimated 1.2 million women diagnosed with breast cancer and more 

than 700,000 die from it ( payudara.pdf.). 

This is reinforced by the results of research conducted by the International 

Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2002, estimates 1.15 million new cases of 

breast cancer and approximately 411 000 died. As a result of breast cancer and 

mortality rates tended to be higher in countries with high GNP and lower in 

countries with low GNP. In contrast, the death rate from breast cancer tends to be 

higher in countries with low GNP. Influence breast cancer increased from 0.5% to 

3% per year, and new cases are diagnosed in the year 2010 will be 1.4 to 1.5 

million (Smith, et al, 2006). Meanwhile, breast cancer is the second highest 

cancer after cervical cancer in Indonesia (Tjindarbumi, in Admin, 2005). From 1988 

to 1992, the most common malignancy in Indonesia has not changed much. Cervical 

cancer and breast cancer continue to occupy the top spot. In addition to the 

number of cases, more than 70% of patients with breast cancer found at an advanced 

stage (Moningkey, in Admin, 2005). Data from the Directorate General of Medical 

Services of the Ministry of Health show that the Case Fatality Rate (CFR) from 

breast cancer by causing pain group showed an increase from 1992 to 1993, ie from 

3.9 to 7.8 (Ambarsari, in Admin, 2005). Then, based on laboratory studies, women 

with cancer more than men (Tjindarbumi, in Admin, 2005), one of the many types of 

cancer found in adolescents is a breast cancer (Cancer control first report, in 

Admin, 2005). Breast cancer is a cancer that attacks the young women after 

cervical cancer (cancer Hispatologi Data in Indonesia, the Admin, 2005).

Breast cancer (mammary carcinoma) is a disease in which malignant neoplasm derived 

from the parenchyma. This disease by the World Health Organization (WHO) is 

inserted into the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) with code number 

17 (Admin, 2007). Breast cancer is the most terrible diseases. Way, attitude or 

reaction of people in the face of breast cancer that is in itself different from 

each other and individual character. It depends on how far the ability of the 

patient in adapting or adjusting to life-threatening situation (Hawari, 2004). 

Hawari (2004) further added that the adjustment also depends on age, maturity, 

emotional, behavioral patterns, emotional reactions in the face of stress, family 

relationships, the social, economic, and education. In adult women with breast 

cancer they are more adaptable to the circumstances of her illness because they 

are more stable emosianal, contrary to their teen is more difficult in adapting to 

the circumstances of her illness because they are still unstable emosianal. In 

addition, breast cancer is a disease that is feared by all women, especially 

adolescent girls, because it can cause death to the sufferer. Type of cancer is 

also a great psychological impact for the individual sufferer because of the risk 

of breast removal surgery for the patient. This is the kind described by Spinetta 

(in Sarafino, 1998) that the loss of one limb of the body because of the healing 

process of cancer is a traumatic and humiliating experience for most children and 

adolescents. Some of them choose not to receive treatment rather than one of his 

limbs was taken as the treatment of breast cancer, because breast for women serves 

as a symbol of femininity, beauty and a secondary sexual organ (Gates, in Admin, 


Breast cancer patients will feel shock when the verdict was told by a doctor, 

because they thought the disease would destroy her future. They then shut 

themselves and punish themselves. For them the world has ended when the verdict 

came. This is in accordance with that proposed by Hawari (2004) that the emotional 

reaction shown by individuals with breast cancer were divided into 3 stages: (1) 

the individual will feel shocked when told about the mental illness, (2) 

individuals overcome with fear (fear ) and depression (melancholy), this stage is 

usually fleeting, (3) individuals show an emotional reaction to rejection (denial) 

and do not believe that she has breast cancer. At this stage the patient will 

panic so do a futile act. Therefore, they did not dare to take medication for fear 

there will be changes to the shape of her body. Such changes as the body becomes 

emaciated, scared for her breast removed because the breast is a pride. They are 

proud to have beautiful breasts, but otherwise they will feel a shock to learn 

that hope to have the breast would not be possible because of the cancer in her 

breast. Accept and love the body will provide security, to avoid anxiety and 

increase self-esteem. Perceptions and experiences of the individual against his 

body can dynamically change the image of the body (Keliat, 1999). For women the 

disease is a frequent cause of loss of confidence, because if she had suffered 

breast cancer has reached an advanced stage he must give up one of her breasts to 

be appointed, maybe even both (Utami and Hasanat, in Segran, 2000). Such 

circumstances, according to Gates (in the Admin, 2005) can lead to psychological 

problems such as low self-esteem, feel incomplete as a woman, and other negative 

views about themselves that impact on social relationships with others. The next 

state will also cause many problems especially those related to behavior and 

emotions and family finances. Those problems led to a depressed individual has a 

condition that comes from within individuals with breast cancer so it can give 

rise to or attempt to adjust or adapt to the problems and pressures that befall 

him. Efforts are called coping behaviors. Coping done to balance the emotions of 

individuals in stressful situations (Solomon, et al, 1998). Coping is a reaction 

to pressure that serves to solve, reduce and replace the stressful conditions 

(Hapsari, et al, 2002).

Coping behavior is a translation of coping behaviors that can be interpreted as a 

behavior facing problems, stress or challenge. Coping behaviors associated with 

other forms of effort by individuals to protect themselves from the psychological 

pressures caused by the problems. Today the process of coping with the problems 

faced by individuals serve as guidelines for dealing with stress reactions. Coping 

with stress in adults is more attention than in childhood or adolescence, this is 

due to the absence of developmental models of coping in childhood and adolescence 

(Smet, 1994). Coping generally happen automatically so individuals feel any 

pressure or threatening situations, individuals are required to immediately 

address the tensions they experienced. Individuals going through the evaluation of 

coping behaviors for so deciding what should be displayed. Coping behaviors that 

do vary greatly between individuals one with another individual. Individuals will 

provide a different assessment of the situation or particular issues. Individuals 

will give a positive or negative judgment on the same conditions and 

circumstances. Differences in turn will affect the assessment of differences in 

assessing strategies for coping with problems that will be used. To reduce the 

stressor, the individual will cope with studying ways or new skills. Individuals 

will tend to use this strategy when he believes can change the situation (Smet, 

1994). Based on the description above, then the author would like to submit 

problems, namely: (1) forms of coping such as what is used by persons with breast 

cancer, (2) how the process of coping with people with breast cancer, and (3) the 

factors that influence what people with breast cancer opt for coping solve the 

pressure it faces. Based on these problems the authors are interested in doing 

research with the title “Coping BEHAVIOR IN BREAST CANCER Disabled”.

B. Research Objectives

The purpose of this research are:

A. To find a form that is used by individuals coping with breast cancer.

2. To find out how the process of coping with people with breast cancer.

3. To determine the factors that affect people with breast cancer are choosing 

coping in resolving the pressures it faces.

C. Benefits of Research

Expected benefits of this research are:

A. Theoretically, the research is expected to be a psychological review for 

individuals who have breast cancer.

2. In practical

a. The results of this study is expected to provide input to the research subjects 

as well as other individuals who have characteristics similar to the subject of 

research on the importance of appropriate coping in solving problems or pressures 

they face, so expect the individual to deal with events that are not expected and 

can interpret incident as a means of coping with the discovery of a form that is 

right for him.

b. The results of this study is expected to provide input for the subject in order 

to help family members resolve family problems or stresses in life with breast 


c. The Foundation is engaged in the world of cancer, especially breast cancer in 

order to provide motivation for patients with breast cancer in the form of 

understandings of breast cancer so it can speed up his recovery.


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