Heart Diseases

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Cardiovascular diseases remain the biggest cause of deaths worldwide, though over the last two decades, cardiovascular mortality rates have declined in many high-income countries but have increased at an astonishingly fast rate in low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of premature deaths from cardiovascular disease range from 4% in high-income countries to 42% in low-income countries. More than 17 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2008. Each year, heart disease kills more Americans than cancer. In recent years, cardiovascular risk in women has been increasing and has killed more women than breast cancer. (PDAY) showed vascular injury accumulates from adolescence, making primary prevention efforts necessary from childhood.

Treatment commonly consists of lifestyle measures (such as smoking cessation, light exercise including breathing protocols, decreased salt intake and other dietary changes) and medications. Sometimes it is treated with implanted devices (pacemakers or ventricular assist devices) and occasionally a heart transplant. Common causes of heart failure include myocardial infarction and other forms of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy.[4] The term “heart failure” is sometimes incorrectly used to describe other cardiac-related illnesses, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) or cardiac arrest, which can cause heart failure but are not equivalent to heart failure.

Cardiovascular diseases remain the biggest cause of deaths worldwide, though over the last two decades, cardiovascular mortality rates have declined in many high-income countries but have increased at an astonishingly fast rate in low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of premature deaths from cardiovascular disease range from 4% in high-income countries to 42% in low-income countries. More than 17 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2008. Each year, heart disease kills more Americans than cancer. In recent years, cardiovascular risk in women has been increasing and has killed more women than breast cancer. (PDAY) showed vascular injury accumulates from adolescence, making primary prevention efforts necessary from childhood.

Complications arise when the flow of blood is obstructed from leaving the right ventricle and making its way into the pulmonary artery, or once blood is in the pulmonary artery, the blood has the ability to flow back into the right ventricle. When blood has a difficult time making its way from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery due to the pulmonary valve area being: Too narrow, deformed in some capacity (e.g., one of the leaflets of the valve is too thick, misshaped, or doesn’t separate from another leaflet), or the vessel above or below the valve being deformed in such a way as to prevent the proper flow of blood, the term “pulmonary valve stenosis” is used.

The rosclerosis is a form of cardiovascular disease. It is where fatty materials (such as cholesterol) build up in the arteries constricting blood flow due to a blood clot. The artery walls also constrict due to the presence of foam cell. These are created when Low-Density Lipoproteins diffuse through the artery walls and become oxidised by free radicals. White blood cells then try to ingest the oxidised cholesterol which creates the foam cells.

Most people with coronary heart disease can look well for years before they start experiencing symptoms, often a heart attack. If it goes untreated, some of the atheromatous plaques might break away and block the blood flow to the heart. Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of sudden death, and it is also the most common cause of death in people over 65 years old. Men are 10 times more likely to suffer from coronary heart disease than women.Yet it kills a lot of people.

While developed countries once had a significant burden of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, medical advances and improved social conditions have dramatically reduced their incidence. Many developing countries, as well as indigenous populations within developed countries, still carry a significant burden of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease and there has been a resurgence in efforts to eradicate the diseases in these populations. Inflammation of the heart valves due to any cause is called endocarditis; this is usually due to bacterial infection but may also be due to cancer (marantic endocarditis),

The left ventricle or both within the left circuit. The patient will have dyspnea (shortness of breath) on exertion (dyspnée d’effort) and in severe cases, dyspnea at rest. Increasing breathlessness on lying flat, called orthopnea, occurs. It is often measured in the number of pillows required to lie comfortably, and in severe cases, the patient may resort to sleeping while sitting up. Another symptom of heart failure is paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea a sudden nighttime attack of severe breathlessness, usually several hours after going to sleep. Easy fatigue ability and exercise intolerance are also common complaints related to respiratory compromise.

Increased heart rate, stimulated by increased sympathetic activity in order to maintain cardiac output. Initially, this helps compensate for heart failure by maintaining blood pressure and perfusion, but places further strain on the myocardium, increasing coronary perfusion requirements, which can lead to worsening of ischemic heart disease. Sympathetic activity may also cause potentially fatal arrhythmias.

Hypertrophy (an increase in physical size) of the myocardium, caused by the terminally differentiated heart muscle fibers  increasing in size in an attempt to improve contractility. This may contribute to the increased stiffness and decreased ability to relax during diastole.

Enlargement of  the ventricles, contributing to the enlargement and spherical shape of the failing heart. The increase in ventricular volume also causes a reduction in stroke volume due to mechanical and contractile inefficiency

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