About Diarrhea

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Diarrhea
DEFINITION
Diarrhea is an increase in volume, keenceran or frequency of bowel movements.Diarrhea caused by health problems are usually very much in number, could reach more than 500 grams / day. People who eat plenty of vegetable fiber, in normal circumstances could result in more than 500 grams, but the normal consistency and not liquid. Under normal circumstances, the feces contain 60-90% water, the water diarrhea can reach more than 90%.

CAUSE
Osmotic diarrhea

Osmotic diarrhea occurs when certain materials that can not be absorbed into the blood, left in the intestines. Material causes an increase in stool water content, resulting in diarrhea. Certain foods (fruits and nuts) and heksitol, also mannitol sorbitol (a sugar substitute in dietetic foods, candy and chewing gum) can cause osmotic diarrhea.

Lactase deficiency can also cause osmotic diarrhea. Lactase is an enzyme that is naturally found in the small intestine, which convert milk sugar (lactose) into glucose and galactose, which can be absorbed into the bloodstream. If people have a lactase deficiency drink milk or eat dairy products, the lactose will not be changed but accumulated in the intestine and causes osmotic diarrhea. Depending on the severity of diarrhea is osmotic amount of incoming material. Diarrhea will stop if people stop eating or drinking substances.

Secretory diarrhea

Secretory diarrhea occurs when the small intestine and colon excrete salt (mainly sodium chloride) and water into the stool. It could also be caused by certain toxins such as cholera and other infectious diarrhea. Diarrhea can be very much, even on cholera can be more than 1 liter / day. Other materials are also induces water and salt are castor oil and bile acids (which are formed after removal of the small intestine). Certain tumors (eg carcinoid, gastrinoma and vipoma, can also cause secretory diarrhea.

Malabsorption syndrome

Malabsorption syndrome can also cause diarrhea. Patients with this syndrome can not digest food normally. On the overall malabsorption, the fat left in the large intestine and cause secretory diarrhea, while the presence of carbohydrates in the large intestine causing osmotic diarrhea.

Malabsorption may also be caused by several circumstances such as:
– Non-tropical Sprue
– Pancreatic Insufficiency
– The appointment of some intestinal
– Blood flow to the colon is not adequate
– The lack of certain enzymes in the small intestine
– Heart disease.

Diarrhea exudative

Exudative diarrhea occurs if the lining of the colon become inflamed or ulcer forming and releasing of proteins, blood, mucus and other fluids, which will increase fiber and fluid in the stool.

Diarrhea can be caused by various diseases such as:
– Ulcerative colitis
– Crohn’s disease (regional enteritis)
– Tuberculosis
– Lymphoma
– Cancer.

If the lining of the rectum, the patient will feel the urge to defecate, and frequent bowel movements, because the rectum is inflamed over sensitf to stretch the stool.

CHANGES IN GUT passage

Changes in gut passage can cause diarrhea. To obtain a normal consistency, stool should remain in the colon during a certain time. Stools that are too fast to leave the large intestine, will form a dilute / liquid. Stools that are too long in the colon, hard and dry consistency.

Many state and treatment that can shorten the presence of feces in the colon, including:
– Hyperthyroidism
– Appointment of partial small bowel or colon
– Surgery for abdominal
– Treatment of ulcers that cutting the vagus nerve
– Bypass surgery in the small intestine
– Antacid medications and laxatives containing magnesium, prostaglandins, serotonin and even caffeine.

BACTERIA GROWTH OF EXCESS

Excessive bacterial growth is the growth of intestinal bacteria in natural abundance or growth of bacteria that are naturally found in the intestines. This can cause diarrhea. Natural intestinal bacteria play an important role in the digestion process.Therefore, disturbances in the intestinal bacteria can cause diarrhea.

SYMPTOMS
Besides causing discomfort, embarrassment due to the toilet frequently and disruption of daily activities; severe diarrhea may also lead to loss of fluids (dehydration) and loss of electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride.

If a large amount of fluid and electrolyte loss, blood pressure will drop and may cause fainting, abnormal heart beats (arrhythmias) and other serious disorders. This risk occurs mainly in children, the elderly, people with weak and severe diarrhea.The loss of bicarbonate can cause acidosis, a disturbance of acid-base balance in the blood.

Diagnosis
First of all, first ascertained whether the diarrhea occur suddenly and for a time, or settle.

We also see whether:
– The cause is a change in food
– There are other symptoms such as fever, pain and skin rash
– There are others who also have the same symptoms.

Diagnosis based on symptoms and results of stool samples. Include fecal examination form (liquid or solid), the smells, the discovery of fat, blood or any substance that can not be digested, and the amount in 24 hours.

If diarrhea persists, microscopic stool examination for:
– Search for cells, mucus, fat and other ingredients
– Found blood and certain ingredients that cause osmotic diarrhea
– Search for infectious organisms, including certain bacteria, amoebae and Giardia.

When secretly taking laxatives, the laxative is taken can be found in stool samples.To examine the lining of the rectum and anus can be done sigmoidoiskopi.Sometimes need to do a biopsy (taking samples of the rectum for microscopic examination).

TREATMENT
Diarrhea is a symptom and its treatment depends on the cause. Most people only need to remove the cause of diarrhea, such as chewing gum diet or certain drugs, to stop the diarrhea. Chronic diarrhea sometimes be cured if people stop drinking coffee or cola drinks that contain caffeine.

To help alleviate diarrhea, given drugs such as diphenoxylate, codeine, paregorik (opium tinctur) or loperamide. Sometimes, bulking agents used in chronic constipation (psillium or methylcellulose) can help relieve diarrhea. To help solidify the stool could be kaolin, pectin and attapulgit active. If severe diarrhea to cause dehydration, then the patient should be hospitalized and given fluids intravenously and salt substitutes. As long as no vomiting and no nausea, can be given a solution containing water, sugar and salt.

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