Many techniques have been discovered to detect the presence of mutant DNAs. One of the most recent methods for molecular DNA testing has shown major improvements in detection. Mutatant enrichment with 3′-modified oligonucleotides, also known as MEMO, shows high hopes of identifiying trace DNA mutant sequences in a vast population of unmutated DNA.
The confirmation and identification of mutated DNA sequences is important for the diagnosis of diseases. These mutations alter a cell’s genome and can occur suddenly and spontaneously. Major causes of genetic mutations are viruses, transposons, radiation, and mutagenic chemicals. Mutations can also occur due to hypermutation, a self-induced mutation, and errors during meiosis or DNA replication. Changes caused by mutations can have no effect, alter a gene product, or hinder a gene from working completely and properly. The mechanism of DNA mutation has become an advantageous tool. It allows for natural selection, the survival of favored characteristic traits and the death of unfavored characteristic traits, to occur.
MEMO was discovered by a group of researchers at the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine in Seoul, Korea. They described this method as an easy and inexpensive technique. By using MEMO, the oligonucleotides permit a normal gene from extending and allow a mutated gene to expand, which in turn causes the detection sensitivity to increase. MEMO can be used to detect and identify cancer mutations, variant strains of infectious diseases, minor mutant alleles in individuals with low-level somatic mosaicism or mitochondrial heteroplasmy, and fetal mutations from maternal plasma. This team of investigators was able to showl how MEMO was sensitive to EGFR, BRAF, JAK2, TP53, or KRAS mutations from DNA of cancer cells and NPM1 mutation from a bone marrow sample. These findings revealed how successful and promising MEMO is.
Unlike the other techniques being used to detect DNA mutations, MEMO was created to make improvements to the process of identification. It provides the ability to easily apply the technique to several different fields of medicine. Disease diagnoses and treatment monitoring depend on the molecular assays produced by this new technique. MEMO is extremely important to the medical industry and helps to improve the outcome of patients.