About Virus H5N1

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Bird Flu DEFINITION Avian influenza is defined as an illness caused by influenza A virus subtype H5N1 is a bird attack, chickens that can infect humans with symptoms of fever> 38 ° C, cough, runny nose, muscle aches, sore throat. However, these symptoms must be applied to someone who had contact with the animals in the last 7 days.Especially if the bird is ill or die. CAUSE A person suffering from bird flu after laboratory tests showed positive for the virus influenza A (H5) as a test of specific antibodies in a serum specimen. Positive viral culture results Influenza A (H5N1) or with the PCR results were positive for H5 influenza. Increase in H5-specific antibody titers of> 4 x> Results with Positive IFA for H5 antigen. SYMPTOMS Symptoms of bird flu is essentially the same as regular flu. Reports of cases that occurred during 1999 showed a variation in symptoms such as: Fever around 39 ° C Cough Limp Sore throat Headache No appetite Throw up Abdominal pain Joint pain Diarrhea Infection of the lining of the eye (conjunctivitis) In a deteriorating situation, there was severe respiratory distress, shortness of breath that is a great, low oxygen levels while increasing levels of carbon dioxide.This happens because the flu infection spreads to the lungs and cause inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia). Experience in Hongkong in 1997 also showed symptoms: fever, cough, runny nose, sore throat, vomiting, and dizziness complaints. However, data from Vietnam in 2004 showed different symptoms. The patient did not complain of a sore throat or runny nose. Also there is no inflammation of the lining of the eye complaints. Half of the patients actually suffering from diarrhea with liquid stools. Diagnosis RISK FACTORS After recognizing the symptoms, will usually look for in-depth information about existing risk factors: Are the relevant work on the farm or been to the market runs out of chicken and others. Also will be asked the other diseases that might aggravate the situation, such as lung or heart disease, a history of allergies, and so forth. After the physical examination to look directly at the patient, followed by laboratory tests and chest X-rays to see whether or not the picture of pneumonia. Transmission Transmission from birds to humans occurs through contact of saliva and feces of birds. That contact occurs through direct contact or even through a vehicle transporting the animals. Also included stables, farm equipment, animal feed, clothing, shoes farmers. Cooked poultry will not transmit the bird flu virus to humans because it will die with a warm 80 ° more than one minute. So far, we always fry chicken with temperatures above 80 ° and more than one minute. So it must be safe. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION Basically carried out to assess the state of health of patients and also to detect the bacteria / virus that attacks what these patients. Examination to assess the state of health, among others, by assessing the levels of leukocytes, liver function, kidney function, and importantly also arterial blood gas analysis. In this examination, among others, will be known how many levels of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood of patients. When oxygen is low, normal values ​​range from 85-95 mmHg, and or karbondioksidanya high, normal values ​​35-45 mmHg, it can be a state of respiratory distress. Of existing data, most patients died of bird flu is an acute respiratory distress. Efforts to find the bird flu virus can be done to assess the serologic response to antigen or antibody and isolating the virus itself. In the case of bird flu can also found an increase in neutralization antibody titer and can also be done antigenic and genetic analyzes, among others, to find out whether there was a mutation of the virus. Both patients in Hong Kong (in 1999) underwent ELISA (enzyme immuno sorbent assay liknk), throat, nasal fluids. Were positive influenza A. In both these cases is also performed in liquid culture of throat nasal passages that show a positive influenza A (H9N2). In a case that occurred in Hong Kong (1997), a diagnosis of H5N1 virus infection confirmed by the discovery of the virus. Location of isolation of this virus on throat swab, fluid sucked from the trachea, throat aspirate the nasal passages, and some of the virus found bronko alveolar fluid obtained by bronchoscopy examination (inserting the tool into the lungs of patients). TREATMENT Given drug may be symptomatic, according to the symptoms. If the cough, the patient may be given cough medicine; that can be packed jenid bronchodilator drugs to dilate the airways are narrowed. Also, it can also be given antiviral drugs such as amantadine and oseltamivir. If the patient’s condition continued to deteriorate, it is not possible to set the ventilator to assist breathing equipment. All patients who have met the criteria for treatment of Avian Influenza carried out at least 1 week in the isolation room. Patients treated in isolation for 7 days (the transmission) due to fear of transmission over the air. During the treatment period, patients applied oxygenation, hydration, symptomatic treatment for flu symptoms, chest X-ray again. In the case of respiratory distressakan RDS treatment according to the procedure. Patients entered into an intensive care unit (ICU). PREVENTION World Health Organization (WHO) states, in general working principles of hygiene, such as: Wash hands and use personal protective equipment, an effort must be made by those who had contact with animals, either in the dead, especially when living. Because eggs can also be infected, then the handling of raw eggs and egg shells may need attention as well. Poultry should be cooked to a temperature of 70 ° C or 80 ° C for at least one minute. If we fry or boil the chicken in the kitchen, it’s certainly more than the cooking temperature and duration. That is, so far no scientific evidence to say that it is safe to consume chicken and other poultry origin has been cooked properly. A healthy lifestyle. In general flu prevention is to keep the immune system by eating a balanced and nutritious diet, rest and regular exercise. Do not forget to wash your hands frequently. Influenza patients are encouraged lots of rest, drink plenty and eat nutritious food. Especially for farm and slaughterhouse workers there are several WHO recommendation to do: All persons who have contact with infected animals should wash their hands frequently with soap. Those who directly hold and carry the sick animals should use disinfectants to clean hands. Those who hold, kill, and carry or move the sick and or die from bird flu should equip themselves with protective clothing, rubber gloves, masks, google goggles, and boots as well. Indoor cage should be cleaned with standard procedures and officer safety notice. Farm workers, deductions, and his family should be told to report to health when suffering from respiratory symptoms, eye infections, and other flu symptoms. It is also advisable that the officer suspected of having contracted the potential there is in strict supervision of health workers. Anyone recommend influenza vaccine, the supply of antiviral drugs, and serological observations on changes in these workers.


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