Urethral cancer is a rare malignancy, which is found in the urethra. The urethra is the channel where discharge of urine from the bladder. In women, the length of the urethra is about 3.75 cm and the end is a hole located above the vagina. In men, the length of the urethra is about 20 cm, through the prostate gland and ended up as a hole in the tip of the penis.
Urethral cancer is more common in women. Part of the urethra is located near the exit hole is called the anterior urethra and the cancer that originated from this area called the anterior urethral cancer.
Part of the urethra which is located near the bladder called the urethra posterior and cancer that begins in this area is called posterior urethral cancer. Posterior urethra is located closer to the bladder and other tissues, so that the cancer in this area are more likely to grow through the layers of the urethra and nearby tissue.
Sometimes patients also suffer from bladder cancer urethral cancer is called urethral cancer associated with bladder cancer. Urethral cancer urethral cancer recurrence is a recurrence after treatment, may recur in the same place or in other parts of the body.
Karunkulus urethra is a benign growth (non-cancer) are more common, the growth of small, red and painful in addition to the opening of the urethra in women. Karunkulus urethra causing blood in urine and the situation is resolved with surgical removal.
The cause of malignancy in a cell-urethra is unknown.
The first symptom is usually blood in the urine (hematuria), which may only be detected by microscopic examination or can also appear as a reddish-colored urine. The flow of urine can be blocked, so that patients have difficulty in urination or urine flow to be slow and a bit.
Physical examination to see and feel a lump in the urethra. In men, a cytoscopy can be inserted into the penis to see the urethra. If a cell is found or signs of abnormality, then take a tissue sample for examination under a microscope (biopsy).
Treatment for cancer of the urethra can be done by:
Radiation therapy, using high doses of X rays or other high-energy rays to kill cancer cells
Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells.
Surgery to remove cancer of the urethra comprising:
Elektrofulgurasi, using electrical current to remove the cancer. Tumor and the surrounding area burned and removed with a scalpel.
Sistouretrektomi (removal of the bladder and urethra).
In men, most of which contain cancer penile urethra can be removed surgically so-called partial penektomi. Sometimes performed removal of the penis (penektomi). After some or all of his penis removed, plastic surgery can be done to make a new penis. In the women could do surgery to remove the urethra, bladder and vagina. To create a new vagian, do plastic surgery.
Anterior urethral cancer
External or internal radiation therapy
Radiation therapy followed by surgery or surgery alone therapy to lift the urethra and pelvic organs in the lower (anterior eksanterasi) or to remove the tumor only (if small). Created a new channel to dispose of urine (urinary diversion).
Posterior urethral cancer
For women, do radiation therapy followed by surgery or surgery alone to remove the urethra, the pelvic organs (eksenterasi anterior) or the tumor only (if small). Lymph nodes in the pelvis are usually removed (lymph node dissection) and lymph nodes in the upper thigh can be removed or it could be tolerated. Created a new channel to remove the urine.
For men, treatment consists of radiation therapy followed by surgery or surgery alone to remove the bladder and prostate (sistoprostatektomi) and the penis and urethra (penektomi). Lymph nodes in the pelvis is removed, the lymph nodes in the upper thigh can not be removed. Created a new channel to remove the urine.
Urethral cancer associated with bladder cancer
Performed removal of the bladder and urethra (sistouretrektomi).
Urethral cancer recurrence
Treatment depends on the technique of treatment of patients who ever lived before. If previous surgery has been performed, the treatment of radiation therapy and surgery to remove cancer. If you have previously had radiation therapy, the treatment of surgery.