Thyroid cancer is a malignancy of the thyroid which has 4 types: papillary, follicular, anaplastic, or medullary. Cancer rarely causes enlargement of the gland, often causes a small growth (nodules) in the gland. The majority of benign thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer is usually curable.
Thyroid cancer often limits the ability to limit the ability to absorb iodine and produce thyroid hormone, but sometimes cancer produce enough thyroid hormone resulting in hyperthyroidism.
Thyroid nodules are likely to be malignant if:
– Only found one
– Skening thyroid nodules do not indicate that the function
– Nodulnya solid and does not have fluid (cystic)
– Hard nodulnya
– Rapid growth.
60-70% of thyroid cancers are papillary cancer. 2-3 times more common in women. Papillary cancer is more common in younger people, but in the elderly cancer grow and spread faster. High risk of papillary cancer found in people who have received radiation treatment in the neck.
Cancer is treated with surgery, which sometimes involves the removal of lymph nodes. Nodules with a diameter smaller than 1.9 cm was appointed along with the surrounding thyroid gland, although some experts recommend to remove the entire thyroid gland. Surgery is almost always curable cancer.
Thyroid hormone is given in doses sufficient to suppress the release of TSH and help prevent recurrence. If nodulnya larger, it is usually carried out most or all of the thyroid gland and radioactive iodine is often given, in the hope that the remaining thyroid tissue or cancer that has spread will absorb it and destroyed. Another dose of radioactive iodine may be necessary to ensure that all cancer has been destroyed. Papillary cancer is almost always curable.
15% of thyroid cancers are follicular cancers. Follicular cancer is also more common in women. Follicular cancer tends to spread through the bloodstream, spreading cancer cells into various organs. Treatment for this cancer is removal of as much as possible of the thyroid gland and radioactive iodine to destroy tissue or remaining cancer cells.
Less than 10% of thyroid cancer is anaplastic cancer. This cancer most often found among older women. Cancer grows very rapidly and usually causes a large lump in the neck. Approximately 80% of patients die within 1 year.
Radioactive iodine is useless because the cancer does not absorb radioactive iodine. Provision of anti-cancer drugs and radiation therapy before and after surgery gives satisfactory results.
In the medullary cancer, thyroid gland produces large amounts of calcitonin (a hormone produced by thyroid cells only). Because it can also produce other hormones, the cancer is causing symptoms that are unusual. Cancer tends to spread through the lymphatic vessels to lymph nodes and through blood to the liver, lungs and bones.
In the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, medullary cancer may occur in conjunction with other endocrine cancers. Treatment involves removal of the thyroid gland. More than 2/3 patients with medullary cancer, which is part of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, surviving 10 years; if medullary cancer alone, the life expectancy of sufferers is not that good.
Sometimes the cancer is inherited, so anyone who has blood ties with medullary cancer, should menjalai screening for genetic disorders. If the result is negative, then almost certainly the person will not suffer from medullary cancer. If results are positive, then he will suffer from medullary cancer; that should be considered to undergo removal of the thyroid although the symptoms do not occur and blood calcitonin levels have not increased.
Calcitonin levels are high or elevated calcitonin levels after excessive stimulation test, also helps in predicting whether someone will develop medullary cancer.
Thyroid cancer is more common in people who have undergone radiation therapy to the head, neck and chest. Other risk factors are family history of thyroid cancer and chronic goiter.
There is enlargement of the thyroid gland or neck swelling. Changed or the patient voice becomes hoarse. Can occur coughing or coughing up blood, and diarrhea or constipation.
The first sign of thyroid cancer is usually a lump that does not feel pain in the neck. Skening nodulnya thyroid function can determine whether or not, because the nodule is not functioning tend to be malignant. Ultrasound examinations can help determine whether solid or fluid-filled nodulnya. Examples of nodules are usually taken with a needle for biopsy purposes. A biopsy is the best way to determine whether it is benign or malignant nodules.