Diabetes insipidus is a disorder where there is a lack of antidiuretic hormone cause excessive thirst (polidipsi) and spending large amounts of very dilute urine (polyuria). Diabetes insipidus caused by decreased production of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin), a hormone that naturally prevents the formation of urine that is too much.
This hormone is unique, because it is made in the hypothalamus and stored and released into the bloodstream by the posterior pituitary. Diabetes insipidus can also occur if normal antidiuretic hormone levels, but the kidneys do not respond normally to this hormone (a condition called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus).
Diabetes insipidus can be caused by several things:
Abnormal function of the hypothalamus and produce too little antidiuretic hormone
Pituitary gland fails to release antidiuretic hormone into the bloodstream
Damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland due to surgery
Brain injuries (especially fractures at the base of the skull)
Sarcoidosis or tuberculosis
Aneurysm or blockage of arteries leading to the brain
Some forms of encephalitis or meningitis
Histiositosis X (disease Hand-Sch? Ller-Christian).
Diabetes insipidus may occur gradually or suddenly at any age. Often the only symptom is thirst and excessive urine expenditure. As compensation for the loss of fluid through the urine, the patient can drink large amounts of fluid (3.8 to 38 L / day). If compensation is not met, then it will quickly lead to dehydration that lower blood pressure and shock. Patients continue to urinate in abundance, especially at night.
Diagnosis based on symptoms. To get rid of diabetes mellitus (diabetes) the examination of sugar in the urine. Blood tests showed abnormal levels of various electrolytes. Examination of the simplest and most reliable for diabetes insipidus is a water deprivation test. During the course of this examination the patient should not drink and severe dehydration can occur. Therefore, this examination should be performed in a hospital or doctor’s office.
Formation of urine, blood electrolyte levels (sodium) and body weight dikur routinely for several hours. Immediately after the blood pressure down or heart rate increased or decreased body weight more than 5%, then the test was terminated and given an injection of antidiuretic hormone.
Diagnosis of diabetes insipidus stronger if in response to antidiuretic hormone:
– Excessive urine discharge stops
– Blood pressure rises
– Heart rate returned to normal.
Diabetes insipidus is treated by addressing the cause. Vasopressin or desmopressin acetate (modified from antidiuretic hormone) can be administered as a nasal spray several times a day to maintain normal urine spending. Too much consumption of these drugs can cause fluid retention, swelling and other disorders. Antidiuretic hormone injections given to patients who will undergo surgery or the patient is unconscious.
Sometimes diabetes insipidus can be controlled by drugs that stimulate the production of antidiuretic hormone, such as chlorpropamide, carbamazepine, klofibrat and various diuretics (thiazides). But these medicines may not totally alleviate the symptoms of diabetes insipidus in which the weight.