Diabetes Mellitus is a disease in which blood glucose (simple sugar) in the blood is high because the body can not release or use insulin adequately.
Blood sugar levels vary throughout the day, rising after a meal and return to normal within 2 hours. Blood sugar levels are normal in the morning after the night before fasting is 70-110 mg / dL of blood. Blood sugar levels are usually less than 120-140 mg / dL at 2 hours after eating or drinking liquids that contain sugars and other carbohydrates. Normal blood sugar levels tend to be mild but progressive increase after the age of 50 years, especially in people who are not active.
Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas, is the main substance responsible for maintaining proper blood sugar levels. Insulin causes glucose to move into the cell so that it can produce energy or stored as energy reserves.
Increased blood sugar levels after eating or drinking stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin which prevents blood sugar levels rise further and cause blood sugar levels slowly decreased. At the time of physical activity levels of blood sugar can also be decreased because the muscles use glucose for energy.
Diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels or when cells do not respond appropriately to insulin.
Patients with diabetes mellitus type I (insulin-dependent diabetes) produce little insulin or does not produce insulin at all. The majority of type I diabetes mellitus occurs before the age of 30 years.
The scientists believe that environmental factors (possibly a virus infection or nutritional factors in childhood or early adulthood) cause the immune system destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Necessary for the occurrence of this genetic predisposition. On type I diabetes, 90% insulin-producing cells (beta cells) experienced permanent damage. Severe shortage of insulin and the patient should get regular injections of insulin.
On type II diabetes mellitus (diabetes that is not dependent on insulin, NIDDM), the pancreas still produces insulin, sometimes higher than normal levels. But the body to form immunity to its effects, resulting in relative insulin deficiency. Type II diabetes can occur in children and adults, but usually occurs after age 30. Risk factors for type II diabetes is obesity, 80-90% of patients are obese. Type II diabetes also tends to be lowered.
Other causes of diabetes are:
High levels of corticosteroids,
Pregnancy (gestational diabetes),
Toxins that affect the formation or the effects of insulin.
Early symptoms associated with the direct effects of high blood sugar levels. If your blood sugar up above 160-180 mg / dL, the glucose will reach into the urine. If levels are higher, the kidneys will get rid of extra water to dilute the amount of glucose is lost. Because the kidneys produce urine in excessive amounts, then the patient is frequent urination in large quantities (polyuria).
Polyuria due to the patient to feel excessive thirst so much to drink (polidipsi). A large number of calories lost into the urine, the patient lost weight. To compensate for these patients often experience tremendous hunger so much to eat (polifagi). Other symptoms are blurred vision, dizziness, nausea, and reduced endurance during exercise. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes more susceptible to infection.
Because of severe insulin deficiency, before undergoing treatment of patients with type I diabetes is almost always lost weight. Most people with type II diabetes do not experience weight loss. In patients with type I diabetes, symptoms develop suddenly and can progress rapidly into a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis.
In the blood sugar levels are high but because most of the cells can not use glucose without insulin, the cells are taking energy from other sources. Fat cells are broken down and produces ketones, which are toxic chemical compounds that can cause the blood to become acidic (ketoacidosis).
The early symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis are thirst and excessive urination, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and abdominal pain (especially in children). Breathing becomes deep and rapid as the body attempts to correct the acidity of the blood. People with bad breath smell like the smell of acetone. Without treatment, diabetic ketoacidosis can develop into a coma, sometimes in just a few hours.
Even after starting insulin therapy, patients with type I diabetes may have ketoacidosis if they miss a single injection of insulin or experiencing stress due to infection, kecelakann or serious illness.
Type II diabetics may not show symptoms semala several years. If more severe insulin deficiency, hence the symptoms of frequent urination and frequent thirst. Ketoacidosis is rare. If blood sugar is very high (up to more than 1,000 mg / dL, usually caused by stress, such as infections or drugs), then the patient will experience severe dehydration, which can cause mental confusion, dizziness, seizures, and a condition called hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar coma Non-ketotic.
Long-time increase in blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels, nerves and other internal structures. Formed a complex substance made up of sugar in the blood vessel walls, making the blood vessels to thicken and leak. As a result of this thickening of the blood flow will be reduced, especially those leading to the skin and nerves.
Blood sugar levels are also likely to lead to uncontrolled levels of fatty substances in the blood increases, thereby accelerating atherosclerosis (plaque buildup in blood vessels). Atherosclerosis is 2-6 times more common in diabetics. Poor circulation through large and small blood vessels can injure the heart, brain, legs, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and skin, and slow healing of wounds.
Due to the above, then the people with diabetes may experience a variety of serious long term complications, which are more common are heart attacks and strokes. Eye blood vessel damage can cause visual disturbances (diabetic retinopathy. Abnormalities of kidney function leading to kidney failure, so patients must undergo dialysis.
Interference with the nerve can manifest in several forms. If one had the nerve dysfunction (mononeuropathy), then a regular arm or leg suddenly became weak. If the nerves leading to the arms, legs, and feet, were damaged (diabetic polyneuropathy), then the arms and legs may feel a tingling or burning pain and weakness.
Nerve damage causes the skin more frequently injured because people can not change the pressure and temperature meradakan. Decreased blood flow to the skin can also cause ulcers (ulcers) and all the slow healing of wounds. Ulcers on the feet can be very deep and have an infection and a long recovery period so that most of the leg to be amputated.
Recent research suggests that diabetes complications can be prevented, delayed, or slowed, by controlling blood sugar levels.