Bronchitis (Bronchitis: Inflammation – bronchi) is an inflammation of the bronchi (airways into the lungs). Bronchitis usually mild and will eventually recover completely. But in patients who have chronic illnesses (eg heart disease or lung disease) and in the elderly, bronchitis can be serious.
Cause of infectious bronchitis is a virus, bacteria, and (especially) of organisms that resemble bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia). Recurrent bronchitis attacks can occur in smokers and people with lung disease and chronic respiratory tract.
Recurrent infections can result from:
Enlarged tonsils and adenoids in children.
Irritating bronchitis can be caused by:
– Various types of dust
– Smoke from a strong acid, ammonia, some organic solvents, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and bromine
– Air pollution causes irritation of ozone and nitrogen dioxide
– Tobacco and other cigarette.
Symptoms of bronchitis include:
– Coughing up phlegm (sputum can be colored red)
– Shortness of breath during exercise or mild activity
– Frequent respiratory infections (eg flu)
– Swelling of the ankles, feet and legs left and right
– The face, palms or reddish mucous membranes
– Looks rosy cheeks
– Impaired vision.
Infectious bronchitis often begins with symptoms such as runny nose, ie runny nose, fatigue, chills, backache, muscle aches, mild fever and sore throat. Coughing is usually the sign of the start of bronchitis. At first did not cough up phlegm, but 1-2 days later will issue a white or yellow sputum. Sputum will grow much further, yellow or green.
Severe bronchitis, after most of the other symptoms improved, sometimes there is a high fever for 3-5 days and the cough may persist for several weeks. Shortness of breath occurs when the airway is blocked. Often found wheezing breath sounds, especially after coughing. Pneumonia can occur.
Diagnosis is usually made based on the symptoms of bronchitis, especially the presence of mucus. On examination with a stethoscope will hear crackles or abnormal breathing sounds.
Other tests are performed:
– Lung function tests
– Arterial blood gases
– Chest X-rays.
Bronchitis treatment made to reduce fever and malaise, to the adult patient can be given aspirin or acetaminophen; to children should be given only acetaminophen. It is advisable to rest and drink plenty of fluids.
Antibiotics are given to patients whose symptoms indicate that the cause is a bacterial infection (yellow or green sputum and fever stays high), and patients who previously had lung disease. To adult patients given trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracyclin or ampicillin. Erythromycin given even suspected cause is Mycoplasma pneumoniae. To people with children given amoxicillin. Instead, they are not given antibiotics.
If symptoms persist or recur or if bronkitisnya very heavy, then the culture of the sputum examination to help determine whether the necessary replacement of antibiotics.