4 healthy 5 perfect coined in the 1950s by Prof. Poerwo Soedarmo is often referred to as the Father of Nutrition Indonesia. The slogan “Healthy Five Four Perfect” contains five food groups, namely: (1) basic food, (2) side dishes, (3) vegetables, (4) of fruit, and (5) milk. The fifth food group is contained in a circular logo that puts food groups 1 to 4 on the side of the circle surrounding the five groups, namely milk, in the middle. Because there are different impression about the milk, then later there was an attempt to change that impression, so that in 1991 the Department of Health published Guidelines for Preparing Nutritious Menu Healthy Families: Healthy 4 – 5 Perfect, the logo has changed. So the food groups arranged in a circle and consists of five parts (according to a clockwise direction): (1) basic food, (2) vegetables, (3) milk, (4) of fruit, and (5) of side dishes.
General Guidelines for Balanced Nutrition
In 1992 in Rome, Italy held the International Congress of Nutrition recommends that each state develop General Guidelines for Balanced Nutrition (Pugs) to produce quality human resources are reliable. Therefore, Indonesia through the Directorate of Community Nutrition, Department of Health (MOH) general guidelines for balanced nutrition made with the logo of a conical or cone which consists of three levels, namely: describe the source of a basic level of power, namely grains, tubers , and starchy; the second level is filled food group sources of regulating substances, namely vegetables and fruits; and the top cone containing the food source of a builder, which is a combination of animal foods (including milk) and vegetable.
By looking at the existing development in 2002, the MOH has completed revisions to UPGS 1994. Pugs logo in 2002 forms will be retained or equal to 1994, ie a cone or a cone, but to be composed of four parts. Revisions are:
First, the number of cone levels of the previous three to four levels, namely: the basic food source of energy / carbohydrates, vegetables and fruit the second level, third level of animal protein and vegetable sources, the level of the four classes of fats and oils.
Second, there are three levels of food sources containing the substance of the builder / protein, made separately between the animal and vegetable (previously combined).
Third, the placement of oil and grease on the highest peak cone where none previously existed.
Fourth, the instructions for using each of these food groups and portion in the form of the word “use as needed” for oils and fats (see figure).
In Indonesia, general guidelines for balanced nutrition (Pugs) is defined as 13 basic messages that can be used as guidelines for each resident to obtain a healthy diet and balanced. 13 foundation of balanced nutrition messages are:
Eat a variety of food, the food sources of energy substances (carbohydrates), builder substances (proteins), as well as regulating substances (vitamins and minerals).
Eat food to meet energy needs. These needs can be met from three main sources, namely carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
Eat a carbohydrate source, half of its energy needs. Sugar consumption should be limited to 5% of the amount of energy sufficiency, or about 3-4 tablespoons per day. Should be approximately 50-60% of energy derived from complex carbohydrates or equivalent with 3-4 rice dishes.
Limit consumption of fats and oils to a quarter of energy sufficiency. Animal fats consumed in excess can cause narrowing of the arteries and coronary heart disease.
Use of iodized salt to prevent iodine deficiency disorders (GAKI). GAKI can inhibit the development of the child’s intelligence level, mumps, and cretins (dwarf). Salt is not recommended to consume more than 6 grams (1 teaspoon) per day.
Eat the food sources of iron to prevent anemia. Good sources are green vegetables, legumes, liver, eggs and meat.
Just feeding the baby until the age of 4 months. Exclusive breastfeeding is sufficient to meet the nutritional needs of infants up to age 4 months, after which the food should be given breast milk (MP-ASI).
Make a habit of eating breakfast (breakfast) to maintain physical endurance and improve labor productivity.
Drink clean water, safe and sufficient in number, ie at least 2 liters, equivalent to 8 glasses every day, so that physiological processes in the body can take place smoothly and in balance.
Do a physical activity and regular exercise to achieve a normal weight and compensate for excessive energy consumption.
Avoid drinking alcoholic beverages.
Eat foods that are safe for health, which is free from microbial contamination and hazardous chemicals, which can cause pain.
Read the labels on packaged foods, to determine the composition of the constituent materials (ingridien), nutrient composition, as well as the expiry date.
For in the United States, Department of Agriculture in 2005 they have been revised to replace the food pyramid was introduced since 1992. The new food pyramid called “MyPyramid” emphasizes the selection of foods that fit the needs of their activities. In addition to the food pyramid image is also included to complete the picture of physical activity undertaken food intake.
Physical activity may include all activities of the movement of the body that uses energy. Walking, gardening, climbing stairs, playing soccer or dance, is one example of physical activity. To get the health benefits of physical activity, then these activities should be carried out for 30 minutes a day. But physical activity does not increase the heart rate is not included in physical activity is as above, such as moving a regular or street while shopping.
Role of Parents in Children’s Diets Settings
Parents are very involved in maintaining a healthy diet and balanced for children because children will imitate the usual diet in the family. By regulating their food intake to stay healthy and balanced, healthy and intelligent children will be maintained to ensure its future