Grade Nine Science Preparing Help Exams

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  • MATTER-is anything that has mass or volume in it.

  • Mass- is a measure of quantity of matter in an object, it can be measure in kilograms or grams (KG,G)

  • Volume- is a measure of how big an object is or how much space a fluid takes up. It can be measured by litres or millilitres(L,mL).

  • All matter have some volume, even if the volume is small.Mater can be solid liquid or gas.

  • It is a way to describe the structure of matter and its behaviour.

  • Matter can be broken into smaller and smaller pieces.

  • THEORY

  • All matter is made up of extremely tiny particles. There are spaces between the particles. (Atoms & Molecules)

  • Each pure substance has its own kind of particle, different from the particles of other pure substances.

  • Particles attract each other. Particles of Matter are held together by very strong electric forces

  • Particles are always moving. Particles of Matter are in constant motion.

  • Particles at a higher temperature move faster on average than particles at a lower temperature. Temperature affects the speed of the particles.  The higher the temperature, the faster the speed of the particles.

  • There are empty spaces between the particles of matter that are very large compared to the particles themselves.

  • Particles have spaces between them. The more distance the particles changes for different states of matter. Ex liquid has more space than a solid does.

  • All matter is made up of different types of combinations of particles.

  • Different types and combinations of particles give every type of matter particular characteristics or properties.

  • A property is a characteristic that describes a substance. Substances can be classified as pure substances or mixture depending on how their particles are arranged.

  • Pure substance- is made up only one kind of matter and has a unique set of properties such as colour, hardness, boiling point and melting point. It is either a compound or an element.

  • ELEMENT- is a substance that cannot be broken-down into any simpler substance by chemical means. Ex. Gold is a an element and a pure substance.

  • COMPUND- is a pure substance that is made from two or more elements that are combined together chemically. Ex sugar is compound and pure substance.

  • Mixture is a combination of pure substances. The substances in a mixture do not combine chemically as happens when a compound forms. there is three different types of mixture.

  • MECHANICAL MIXTURE- the different substances that make up the mixture are visible. EX soil. A mixture that is visible from different parts is called heterogeneous. Prefix(hetro) means different.

  • SUSPENSION- is a cloudy mixture with tiny particles of one substance are held within another. EX tomato juice. These particles can be separated out when the mixture is poured through filter paper. A mixture that is visible from different parts is called heterogeneous. Prefix(hetro) means different.

  • SOLUTION- the different substances that make it up are not individually visible. One substance is dissolved in another, creating homogeneous mixture look the same. Ex. sugar dissolved in tea.

4.2

  • Cohesion- help water stick to itself

  • Adhesion- helps water stick to other substances.

  • PHYSICAL PROPERTY- describes a characteristics of a substance that can be observed or measured. Ex. melting point

  • Adhesion and cohesion help move water thought the plant such at leaves and stems.

  • Water is one of the special substances that do not shrink when they freeze. It jus expands. For.ex ice floats on water. even if this is a good thing, when ice is on roof or houses when it freezes or melts it can cause serious damage because ice is heavy.

  • CHEMICAL PROPERTY describes the ability of a substance to change into new substances or substances. It also includes how a substance interacts with other substances.

  • CHEMICAL CHANGE-always results in the formation of a new substance or substances.

  • CHEMICAL REACTION- is a process in which a chemical change occurs.

  • Chemical properties can be observed only when a chemical change occurs. Chemical change can include a great variety of changes, including colour, odour, temperature, the production of light, the formation of a new solid inside a liquid, or the production of a new gas

  • Applying heat to a substance can cause chemical change.

  • Heating causes many different kinds of substances to react. Burning is another example of chemical change.

  • COMBUSTIBLITY- is  the ability of a substance to react quickly with oxygen to produce heat and light.

  • When some substances are mixed they observe heat.

  • Atom – is the smallest part of an element that has all the all of the element properties.

  • Atomic theory- is the study of nature of atoms and how they combine to form al types of matter. It helps us understand why there are different kinds of atoms. It explains how atoms combine form over 100 known elements and all other forms of matter, including compounds and mixtures.

  • Atomic theory takes shape is rooted in the idea of understanding of atoms and their structure can help us predict many of the properties of matter.

  • ATOM THEORY

  • All matter is made of small indivisible particles called atoms.

  • All the atoms of an elements are identical in properties with as size and mass.

  • Atoms of different elements have different properties.

  • Atoms of different elements can combine in specific ways to form new substance.

  • Electros are understood to negatively charged particles in atoms.

  • Nucleus is the centre of at atom.

  • Neutrons are neutral particles in the nucleus of the atom

  • Protons are the positively charged particles in atom.

  • Each neutron in atom has about the same mass as each proton in the same atom. But the neutron carries no electrical charge.

  • Subatomic particles are what atoms are made of.

  • Relative mass compares the mass of an object to the mass of another object.

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