Kidney stones are a condition contained one or more stones in the pelvis or calyces of the kidney or ureter in the channel. Formation of kidney stones can occur in any part of the urinary tract, but are usually formed on the two largest parts of the kidney, namely in tubs kidney (renal pelvis) and the renal calix. Stones can be formed from calcium, phosphate, or a combination of uric acid is usually dissolved in the urine.
Urinary tract stones are hard deposits of solids that help in the urine drainage. About 10% of kidney stones from metabolic problems which estimated that an excess of uric acid in urine, high levels of calcium in the blood or salt of oxalic acid absorption in the intestine that can lead to excessive formation of kidney stones. Proteins could also play a role in urinary stone formation by increasing the acidity of the urine and increase spending urine containing uric acid, phosphorus and calcium.
In patients with stone disease, more than one of three general mechanisms tend to be active. It includes:
A possibility of the existence of or excess of substances that affect the formation of crystals or the formation of crystalline rock
2 possible deficiency to inhibit crystal formation.
3 possibility of excessive spending or the salt concentration in urine leading to saturation of the salt crystals. The greater the degree of saturation, the greater the level of crystal growth.
Kidney stones vary in size, can be either single or double. Living stones in the kidney tubs or to enter into the ureter and kidney tissue damage. Large stone will damage the tissue by pressure or cause an obstruction, resulting in back flow of fluid. Most kidney stones can occur repeatedly. Kidney stones are found in 1 in 1,000 people, usually more common in men (aged 30-50 years) than women. Also encountered in certain areas. Although it is certainly not known to cause kidney stones, chances are when the urine becomes too concentrated and substances in urine to form crystals in the rock. Other causes are infection, obstruction, excess secretion of parathyroid hormone, renal tubular acidosis in, elevated levels of uric acid (usually in conjunction with inflammation of the joints), damage to the metabolism of several types of materials in the body, too much use of vitamin D or calcium consuming too much .
Although stone size and location vary, obsruksi pain caused by a major symptom. Large stone with a rough surface that comes into the ureter will increase the frequency and force of contraction ureter automatically. The pain starts from the waist down to the hips, then to the external genitalia. Pain intensity and pain fluctuate remarkable is the peak of pain. If kidney stones are in tubs and in calix, the pain settled and less intensity. Back pain occurs when the rock entered obstruction in the kidney. Meanwhile, severe pain in the abdomen occurs when the stone had been moved into the ureter. Nausea and vomiting are always following the severe pain. Patients with kidney stones are sometimes also experience fever, chills, blood in the urine when the injured ureter stones, abdominal distention, pus in the urine.
The types of kidney stones
The most common stones are struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium oxalate, urate, cystine, and silica.
The overall objective is the treatment of kidney stones
to prevent kidney damage, which can cause damage to renal parenchyma.
Reduce the pain (pain). Can be given class of analgesic drugs, non steroidal anti inflamsi. For example: ketorolac, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid.
Shed or reduce the stone.
Prevent the formation of new stones.
Medical therapy depends on the type of stone produced. Individuals with hypercalciuria is caused by deposition of lime can be treated with diuretics thiazid groups, such as hidroklortiazid. Infection needs treatment with appropriate antibiotics. Surgical intervention may be needed if the stone is produced is too high and cause blockage, antibiotic therapy is not quite eliminate the infection, or after infection to remove pieces of stone. Uric acid stones requiring alkalinization of the urine with potassium citrate or sodium bicarbonate in 4 divided doses. Urine pH level should be maintained at a pH of 7.5 or more. Uric acid is more soluble in alkaline than acidic urine. Allopurinol is indicated in individuals with urate stones in which the production of uric acid than normal.