It has both digestive and not digestive functions.
It’s development is in the foregut. It is situated in the upper abdomen, left
hypochondriac, epigastric and umbilical regions.
It is normally J shaped.
New born –30 ml
At puberty-1000 ml
Adult – 1500 ml
When empty the stomach is somewhat J shaped. When partially it
becomes piriform in shape. In obese persons it is more horizontal.
It is about 10 inches long and the mean capacity is one Ounce
(30 ml) at birth, one litre at puberty and 1.5 – 2 litres or more in adults.
The stomach has
1. 2 openings or ends.(orifices)
2. 2 borders.
3. 2 surfaces
4. 2 peritoneal sacs are related.
5. 2 Omenta are attached to it.
Openings of the Stomach
This is the upper opening of the stomach. This is not an anatomical
sphincter. The Oesophagus opens in to the stomach at the level of
This is the lower opening of the stomach. It is situated 1.25 cm to the
right of the midline at the transpylorie line. It opens into the duodenum. It
has a well defined anatomical pyloric sphincter. Pyloric groove separates it
from the duodenum. The pyloric end is greenish as it is stained by the bile.
Borders of the stomach
It has 2 borders
1. Lesser Curvature.
2. Greater Curvature.
It is the right upper border. It is the direct continuation of the right
border of angularis. Lesser curvature gives attachment to the lesser
Omentum. A peptic ulcer commonly occurs along or nearer to the lesser
It is the lower and left border of the stomach. It is 5 times longer than
the lesser Curvature. Between the Oesophagus and greater curvature the
cadiac notch is situated.
To the greater curvature the following peritoneal folds are attached,
1. Gastrophrenic ligament.
2. Gastro Splenic ligament.
3. Greater Omentum
Surface of the Stomach
It has two surfaces,
1. The antero superior surface.
2. The postero inferior surface.
Structures forming the stomach bed
1. The diaphragm (left crus)
2. Left kidney.
3. Left supra renal gland.
4. Splenic artery and spleen.
5. Body of the Pancreas.
6. Transverse Mesocolen.
7. Left colic flexure.
Parts of the Stomach (Fig.1)
3. Pyloric Antrum
4. Pyloric canal.
It is the highest part of the stomach. Usually it is filled with gas.
It is situated below the fundus.
It is situated along the right side of the body of the stomach.
ARTERIAL SUPPLY (Fig. 2)
Along the lesser Curvature
1. Left gastric artery from coeliac artery.
2. Right gastric artery from hepatic artery.
Along the greater Curvature
1. Right gastroepiploic artery from the gastroduodentral artery.
2. Left gastroepiploic artery from the splenic artery.
Fundus of the stomach
5-6 short gastric arteriers from splenic artery.
Among the lesser Curvature
1. Left gastric vein.
2. Right gastric vein – into portal vein.
Among the greater Curvature
1. Left gastroepiploic vein into splenic vein.
2. Right gastroepiploic vein into superior mesentric vein.
Fundus of the Stomach
5-6 short gastric veins into splenic vein.
1. Right and left vagus nerves via anterior and posterior gastric
2. Oesphageal plexus.
The greater splanchnic nerve (T5 – T9) joins the coeliac ganglion.
From the ganglion post – ganglionic fibres continues to form the coeliac