A hernia is the protrusion of a viscus or part of a viscus through an
The most common location for hernia is the abdomen. The abdominal
wall – a sheet of tough muscle and tendon that runs down from the ribs to the
legs at the groins – acts as ‘nature’s corset’. Its function, amongst other
things, is to hold in the abdominal contents, principally the intestines. If a
weakness should open up in that wall, and it does not really matter how or
why it happened, the ‘CORSET EFFECT’ is lost and what pushes against it
from the inside (the intestines) simply pushes through the ‘window’. The
ensuing bulge, which is often quite visible against the skin, is the hernia.
These ‘windows of weakness’ commonly occur where there are natural
weaknesses in our abdominal wall – such as where the ‘plumbing’ goes
through it. Examples of these are the canals inguinal and femoral which
allow passage of vessels down to the scrotum and the legs, respectively.
Types of Abdominal Hernia
The most frequent of this is, Inguinal hernia which occurs in 73% cases.
I.ANATOMICAL TYPES: – Three types of classification can be made
under this heading.
a. According to the extent of the hernia it can be either
(a) A Bubonocele – when the hernia does not come out of the
superficial inguinal ring;
(b) An Incomplete Hernia – when it comes out through the
superficial inguinal ring but fails to reach the bottom of the scrotum, and
(c) Complete Hernia – when it reaches the bottom of the scrotum.
b. According to its site of exit it can be either
(a) An Oblique (Indirect) Hernia – when the hernia comes out through
the deep inguinal ring i.e. lateral to the inferior epigastric artery and
(b) A Direct Hernia – when it comes out through the Hesselbach’s
triangle which is bounded medially by the lateral border of the rectus
abdominis. Laterally by the inferior epigastric artery and below by the
inguinal ligament that means the neck of the sac lies medial to the
inferior epigastric artery.
c. According to the contents of the hernia, a hernia may be either
(a) An Enterocele – when it contains the Intestine (Enteron),
(b) An Epiplocele or Omentocele – when it contains omentum
(c) A Cystocele when it contains the urinary bladder.