CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS:
All organisms can be placed in five main kingdoms. This system is known as
“Five kingdom system of classification”
The five kingdoms are
1. Monera – Prokaryote, unicellular
2. Protista – Eukaryote, unicellular
3. Fungi – Eukaryote, Multicellular
4. Plantae – Eukaryote, Multicellular
5. Animalia – Eukaryote, Multicellular
The parasites of medical importance fall into two kingdoms. These are,
Parasites include protozoa and helminthes, in main subdivision, both are
again divided into smaller sub groups.
These are the microscopic single celled eukaryotic organisms having a true
nuclear membrane. They superficially resembles yeast in their size and simplicity.
They belong to the kingdom protista.
These are macroscopic multicellular worms possessing well differentiated
tissues end complex organ systems. These vary in length from less than 1 mm to
more than 1m.
Those belong to the Kingdom Animalia,
These are unicellular organisms These are multicellular organisms
A single cell performs all the
Each special cell performs a particular
Further divided into
Further divided into
SUBDIVISIONS OF PROTOZOA:
These are microscopic unicellular organisms variable in size and shape. They
have move by pseudopodia.
These possess flagellae for locomotion. These includes haemoflagellates and
These produce spore like oocytes and alteration of generation and host
These posses cilia, which act as organs of locomotion,
SUB DIVISIONS OF HELMINTHES:
These are unsegmented leaf like organisms. There is no separate sex and the
body cavity is absent. They have incomplete alimentary canal.
These are elongated, cylindrical and unsegmented organisms. Separate male
and female organisms found. Body cavity is present.
Eg. Hook worm
These are tape like segmented organisms. Sexes not separate. They have no
body cavity and alimentary canal.
EOSINOPHILIA AND TROPICAL INFECTIONS:
Eosinophilia is associated with parasitic infections, particularly those with a
tissue migration phase during their life cycle. Eosinophils have an important role in
mediating antibody dependent damage to helminthes phagocytosing immune
complexes and modulating Type I hypersensitivity reactions.
EOSINOPHILIC SYNDROMES ASSOCIATED WITH HELMINTHIC
i) Urticarial Rashes:
(d) Hydatid disease
ii) Cutaneous Larva Migrans:
(a) Anchylostoma braziliense
iv) Migratory Subcutaneous Swellings:
v) Lymphagitis, Orchitis:
(a) Lymphatic Filariasis
vii) Febrile Hepatosplenomegaly:
(a) Migratory stage of Larval Helminthes (Loeffler’s syndrome)
(b) Lymphatic Filariasis
ix) Enteritis and Colitis:
TROPICAL INFECTIONS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH EOSINOPHILIA:
(b) Arboviral Infections
(d) Enteric fever