Classification of Micro Organisms And Associated Infections.

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CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS:

All organisms can be placed in five main kingdoms. This system is known as

“Five kingdom system of classification”

The five kingdoms are

1. Monera – Prokaryote, unicellular

2. Protista – Eukaryote, unicellular

3. Fungi – Eukaryote, Multicellular

4. Plantae – Eukaryote, Multicellular

5. Animalia – Eukaryote, Multicellular

The parasites of medical importance fall into two kingdoms. These are,

1. Protista

2. Animalia

Parasites include protozoa and helminthes, in main subdivision, both are

again divided into smaller sub groups.

PROTOZOA:

These are the microscopic single celled eukaryotic organisms having a true

nuclear membrane. They superficially resembles yeast in their size and simplicity.

They belong to the kingdom protista.

HELMINTHES:

These are macroscopic multicellular worms possessing well differentiated

tissues end complex organ systems. These vary in length from less than 1 mm to

more than 1m.

Those belong to the Kingdom Animalia,

PARASITES:

Protozoa Helminthes

These are unicellular organisms These are multicellular organisms

A single cell performs all the

functions

Each special cell performs a particular

function.

Further divided into

1. Amoeba

2. Flagellates

3. Sporozoa

4. Ciliates

Further divided into

1. Trematodes

2. Nematodes

3. Cestodes

SUBDIVISIONS OF PROTOZOA:

I. Amoebae:

These are microscopic unicellular organisms variable in size and shape. They

have move by pseudopodia.

Eg. Entamoeba

Naegleria

II. Flagellates:

These possess flagellae for locomotion. These includes haemoflagellates and

intestinal flagellates.

Eg. Leishmania

Giardia

Trichomonas

III. Sporozoa:

These produce spore like oocytes and alteration of generation and host

occurs.

Eg. Plasmodium

Toxoplasma

IV. Ciliates:

These posses cilia, which act as organs of locomotion,

Eg. Balantidium

SUB DIVISIONS OF HELMINTHES:

I. Trematodes:

These are unsegmented leaf like organisms. There is no separate sex and the

body cavity is absent. They have incomplete alimentary canal.

Eg. Fasciola

Schistosoma

II. Nematodes:

These are elongated, cylindrical and unsegmented organisms. Separate male

and female organisms found. Body cavity is present.

Eg. Hook worm

Round worm

Thread worm

III. Cestodes:

These are tape like segmented organisms. Sexes not separate. They have no

body cavity and alimentary canal.

Eg. Taenia

Echinococcus

EOSINOPHILIA AND TROPICAL INFECTIONS:

Eosinophilia is associated with parasitic infections, particularly those with a

tissue migration phase during their life cycle. Eosinophils have an important role in

mediating antibody dependent damage to helminthes phagocytosing immune

complexes and modulating Type I hypersensitivity reactions.

EOSINOPHILIC SYNDROMES ASSOCIATED WITH HELMINTHIC

INFECTIONS:

i) Urticarial Rashes:

(a) Strongyloidiasis

(b) Onchocerciasis

(c) Fascioliasis

(d) Hydatid disease

(e) Trichinosis

ii) Cutaneous Larva Migrans:

(a) Anchylostoma braziliense

iii) Dermatitis:

(a) Onchocerciasis

iv) Migratory Subcutaneous Swellings:

(a) Loiasis

(b) Gnathostomiasis

v) Lymphagitis, Orchitis:

(a) Lymphatic Filariasis

vi) Myositis:

(a) Trichinosis

(b) Cysticercosis

vii) Febrile Hepatosplenomegaly:

(a) Schistosomiasis

(b) Toxocariasis

viii) Pneumonitis:

(a) Migratory stage of Larval Helminthes (Loeffler’s syndrome)

(b) Lymphatic Filariasis

ix) Enteritis and Colitis:

(a) Strongyloidiasis

(b) Capillariasis

(c) Trichinosis

x) Meningitis:

(a) Angiostrongyliasis

(b) Strongyloidiasis

TROPICAL INFECTIONS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH EOSINOPHILIA:

(a) Amoebiasis

(b) Arboviral Infections

(c) Brucellosis

(d) Enteric fever

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(e) Giardiasis

(f) Leishmaniasis

(g) Leprosy

(h) Malaria

(i) Tuberculosis

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