Webmasters as well as at ease providers began optimizing sites for search engines in the mid-1990s, since the first search engines were tagging the early Web. Initially, all webmasters desirable to do was submit the address of a page, or URL, to the different engines which would throw a “spider” to “crawl” that page, extract links to other pages from it, and revisit in order found on the page to be indexed. The method involves a search engine spider downloading a page and storing it on the search engine’s be in possession of attendant, where a second program, known as an indexer, extracts a variety of information about the page, such as the words it contains and where these are positioned, as well as any weight for specific words, and all links the page contains, which be next to be found into a scheduler for crawling at in a while date.
Site owners started to recognize the value of having their sites highly ranked and visible in search engine results, creating a chance for both white hat and black hat SEO practitioners. According to industry psychoanalyst Danny Sullivan, the phrase “search engine optimization” probably came into use in 1997. The earliest documented use of the term Search Engine Optimization was John Audette and his company Multimedia Marketing Group as familiar by means of a web page from the MMG site from August, 1997.
Early versions of search algorithms relied on webmaster-provided in order such as the keyword Meta tag, or index files in engines like ALIWEB. Meta tags provide a point to each page’s content. Using meta data to index pages was found to be less than reliable, however, because the webmaster’s choice of keywords in the meta tag could potentially be an incorrect representation of the site’s actual content. Incorrect, incomplete, and not consistent data in Meta tags could and did cause pages to rank for inappropriate searches. Web content providers also manipulated a number of attributes within the HTML source of a page in an attempt to rank well in search engines.
As a result of relying so much on factors such as keyword thickness which were exclusively within a webmaster’s control, early search engines suffered from abuse and ranking manipulation. To provide better results to their users, search engines had to adapt to ensure their results pages showed the most relevant search results, rather than unrelated pages puffy with numerous keywords by unprincipled webmasters. Since the success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search, allowing those results to be false would turn users to find other search sources. Search engines responded by developing more complex ranking algorithms, taking into account additional factors that were more difficult for webmasters to manipulate.
Accommodate students at Stanford University, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, developed “Backrub,” a search engine that relied on a mathematical algorithm to rate the importance of web pages. The number calculated by the algorithm, Page Rank, is a function of the quantity and strength of inbound links. Page Rank estimates the possibility that a given page will be reached by a web user who randomly surfs the web, and follows links from one page to another. In effect, this means that some links are stronger than others, as a higher Page Rank page is more likely to be reached by the casual surfer.
Page and Brin founded Google in 1998. Google attracted a loyal subsequent among the growing number of Internet users, who liked its easy design. Off-page factors (such as Page Rank and hyperlink analysis) were careful as well as on-page factors (such as keyword frequency, meta tags, headings, links and site structure) to enable Google to avoid the kind of manipulation seen in search engines that only considered on-page factors for their rankings. Although Page Rank was more difficult to diversion, webmasters had already developed link building tools and schemes to power the Inkotme search engine, and these methods proved similarly applicable to gaming Page Rank. Many sites focused on exchanging, buying, and selling links, often on a massive scale. Some of these schemes, or link farms, involved the creation of thousands of sites for the individual idea of link spamming.
In 2004, search engines had integrated a wide range of undisclosed factors in their ranking algorithms to reduce the force of link manipulation. Google says it ranks sites using more than 200 different signals. The leading search engines, Google, Bing, and Yahoo, do not disclose the algorithms they use to rank pages. SEO service providers, such as Rand Fishkin, Barry Schwartz, Aaron Wall and Jill Whalen, have studied different approaches to search engine optimization, and have published their opinions in online forums and blogs. SEO practitioners may also study patents held by various search engines to increase insight hooked on the algorithms.
In 2005, Google began personalizing search results for each user. Depending on their history of previous searches, Google crafted results for logged in users. In 2008, Bruce Clay said that “ranking is dead” because of personalized search. It would turn out to be meaningless to discuss how a website ranked, because its rank would potentially be different for each user and each search.