Fertilization of an egg is done with a sperm in a laboratory dish outside the body first. Then it is implanted inside the uterus. This method is termed as invitro fertilization. Of a reproductive technology termed as ART or assisted reproductive technology, this kind of fertilization is an important part. In Latin terminology the term ‘in vitro’ means ‘within the glass.’
External Fertilization of the Ova
Hormones are administered for controlling the ovulation process after which from the ovaries of the woman the ova is removed. External fertilization of the ova is then done with a sperm which is donated by the male donor. In the year 2010 in Physiology the Nobel Prize was awarded to Dr. Robert G. Edward for developing the invitro fertilization procedure.
Due to issues related to infertility or inability to conceive some of the couples opt for such a procedure. Before this procedure is considered it is vital for you to understand different steps involved. Test-tube babies, was the term popularly used for the babies born on using this technique. Understanding all the steps of invitro fertilization procedure always helps.
Partners Are Screened
Certain tests are initially done and both partners are screened properly. Before any medication is administered an ovarian reserve test has to be undergone by the woman. Next a third day RSH testing is conducted for determining the baseline of hormone related to follicle stimulation ininvitro fertilization. This is done on the menstrual cycles third day. If there is a diversion seen in the normal FSH level then a reduction in reserves of the ovaries is indicated.
Whether or not the woman will be able to respond to drug administration is determined by the doctor. This is done in the process of stimulation for egg production. Depending upon the egg numbers retrieved that the success of the IVF process is determined. Fertility drugs are administered to the woman in the ovary stimulation process for egg production purposes. Normally one egg is produced every month but when ovaries are stimulated with drugs, several eggs are produced.
Follicular aspiration is a surgical procedure followed for retrieval of eggs. To reach the follicles contained in the ovaries through the vagina of the woman a needle is inserted by the doctor. An ultrasound is used as well. Along with some fluid the eggs are aspirated by an apparatus for suction. For both ovaries this painless procedure is carried out. Cramps could be experienced after surgery. Before fertilization at a controlled temperature the eggs are stored. Eggs of best quality are then mixed with the male sperm in an artificial insemination process. Fertilization then takes place after a few hours.
An ICSI injection or intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection is given for injecting sperms into the egg directly. The embryo is formed when fertilized egg undergoes the division stage. After fertilization the embryo is implanted in the womb of the woman after three to five days. Certain side effects could be experienced by the woman like headaches, bloating or mood swings. This invitro fertilization procedure is very beneficial for couples unable to naturally conceive.