nvestigation of the risk of depression in young girls
Young girls who are at high risk for depression, but do not experience the symptoms indicate specific reaction in the experiment, simulating the possibility of reward or loss, says a report in the April issue of one of the journals JAMA / Archives. “The peculiarity of depressive disorders – weakened by the experience of pleasure or reward” – the authors write in the introductory part of the article. “Thus, in comparison with unsuppressed people, oppressed characterized by a reduced response to slides depicting pleasant scenes, to pleasant drinks and unforeseen cash awards.” The study assumes that these changes reflect basic differences in how the brain processing of positive stimuli. To understand whether these changes precede the beginning of depression or are its consequence, Ian H. Gotlib, Ph.D., Stanford University, California, and colleagues studied the behavior of 13 girls aged 10-14, who had no depression, but the mothers that showed recurrent depression (ie, the girls were at risk), and 13 other girls the same age, in families where no one suffered from depression.
All 26 participants were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging during tasks involving reward or punishment. They were shown the target and explained that if there was a circle, they will receive points if they are fast enough, if the square – they will not lose points if you show the speed, in case of the triangle they do not win and not lose, so we must pass the course. The task consisted of 100 6-second test, each of which contained a phase out and phase feedback, during which the girls said they received or have lost points, which can be converted into prizes at the end of the experiment. Both groups have different tasks: high-risk group showed a weak response when compared with low risk. It is noteworthy that the girls at high risk has been activated brain area known as the dorsal cingulate cortex earlier responsible for the processing of past experience in teaching. However, compared to girls from low-risk, they showed a strong activation of this area, getting punished. It is assumed that they no longer receive information about loss and punishment than a reward and pleasure.