So, if we take the number of brain cells of adult human is 100%, then the time of birth of the child formed only 25% age of six months there will be 66% to one-year – 85 .. 90%. The development of the nervous system is faster than the younger the child. Especially it proceeds vigorously during the first three months of life.
That is why it is particularly important as early as possible to identify pathological changes in the nervous system in children, which could arise as a result of adverse pregnancy or childbirth. Only in the early diagnosis of young patients may provide timely assistance.
The most common reasons for having an adverse effect on the fetus are cardiovascular and broncho-pulmonary diseases of mother, presence of toxemia, threatened abortion, immunological rejection in the “mother – placenta – fetus”, and infectious diseases during pregnancy, harmful occupational and domestic factors, and taking certain medications during pregnancy, smoking, alcohol consumption.
Adverse factors contributing to the development of pathological changes in the nervous system, are also premature birth (before 38 weeks gestation), rapid (less than 6 hours) or prolonged (more than 24 hours) delivery, the umbilical cord entanglement
Child anesthesia (caesarean section). Intracranial birth injuries are more common in premature infants due to immaturity of the tissues, increased vascular permeability, softness of the skull bones, and among children whose mothers are noted stiffness of tissues of the birth canal, distortion or restriction of the pelvis, oligohydramnios.
Given the high risk of damage to the nervous system of children born to mothers who had observed the above listed disadvantages of pregnancy or childbirth, these children should be examined by pediatric neurologists in the first month of life.
Consulting a neurologist have to be carried out also with the appearance of these pathological symptoms: frequent regurgitation, sleep disturbances, tremor of the chin, handles, quick (not age-appropriate) an increase in head circumference, delayed psychomotor development of the child.
The most informative, friendly and fast method of diagnosis that helps the neurologist determine the cause of abnormal neurological signs, is neurosonography (NSG). Ultrasound examination of the brain (NSG) has been widely included in doctors’ practice of European countries 1980-1990. Currently, NSG is used primarily to evaluate the intracranial changes in children under 1 year. At this age, with the ability to survey not only through the temporal bone, but also through a large fontanelle, the doctor may examine all parts of the brain – to evaluate the parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid path. It is in the first months of life is comparable to the information content of NSG high resolution, but at the same time, expensive and require anesthesia for their conduct means of magnetic – resonance and computed tomography. NLS allows us to estimate the ratio of secretion – resorption of cerebrospinal fluid – an imbalance of these processes most often leads to the development of intracranial hypertension (increased intracranial pressure-ICP). The substance of the brain is very sensitive to increased intracranial pressure. An increase in CSF pressure causes a rapid increase in degenerative changes of nerve cells, but more prolonged existence of hypertension, causes their atrophy and death. Early diagnosis allows to assign therapy and avoid adverse effects. Due to safety and NSG capabilities of the research can assess the effectiveness of the therapy, and depending on the dynamics of individual dose used to pick up drugs. Ultrasound examination obligatory in children with hypoxic-ischemic lesion of the central nervous system to determine the severity of parenchymal destruction and the dynamics of the process. NSG to diagnose central nervous system malformations, the nature of changes in the parenchyma of the fetal CNS (herpes, cytomegalovirus infection, toxoplasmosis, mycoplasmosis, etc.).