Effect of Electric current
there are totally four electric current effects
1. Chemical effect
2. Heating effect
3. Lighting effect
we are going to discuss about one by one of the above four effects
1. Chemical effect :
An electrolyte (conducting liquid) consists of two equal and oppositely charged group of atoms(called ions) .when electric current passed through an electrolytic solution or a potential difference is applied across a pair ofof electrodes introduced in the electrolyte the two groups of ions get attracted towards their respective electrodes. positive ions move towards cathode (negative electrode) and are called as cations. negative ions move towards anode (positive electrode) and are called as anions. this phenomenon is known as electrolysis and is widely used in separation of substance. similarly, electroplating employs the chemical effect of current. electroplating is depositing a layer of metal by electrolysis on an object. the object to be plated forms the cathode in an electrolytic tank containing a solution of a salt of he metal that is to be deposited.
2. Heating effect :
The heating effect of the electronic appliances basically depends up on the resistance of the heating element. heat produced in a conductor of resistance R with current I flowing for t seconds is I2 Rtjoules. the heating effect of current is used in appliances like electric iron , kettles, ovens, immersion heaters etc. the heating present in side these appliances usually made of nichrome wire , which has a very high electric resistance and a high melting point.
3. Lighting effect :
Electricity is used to produce light by means of filament lamp. a filament lamp consist of a coiled coil of tungsten filament enclosed in a glass bulb. the ends of the filament are connected to two wires which are In turn connected to the electric socket. tungsten is usually used in the filament lamp as it has high melting point. coiling of the filament reduces the loss of heat. when electric current is passed, the filament gets heated up and emits light. the glass bulb contains inert gas like argon to reduce evaporation and oxidation of tungsten filament. the disadvantage of filament lamp is that, most of the electric energy supplied is converted into heat energy and only a small amount is changed into light energy.
4. Magnetic effect :
Oersted discovered that when an electric current is passed through a conductor, a magnetic field is produced around the conductor. the magnetic field formed is in a plane perpendicular to the conductor. if we imagine holding a current carrying wire in our right hand, such that the thumb is stretched along the direction of the current then the fingers will wrap around in the direction of the magnetic field.