Progress of Natonalism at Indonesia under colonialism

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1. Nationalism
a. The

Some opinions / understanding of nationalism, among others:
a. Hans Kohn, nationalism is a tenet of loyalty and the highest individual dierahkan directed to the State of nationality.
b. Ernest Renan, desires arise due to a national desire to live together (united desire) with a feeling of esprit de corps is noble.
c. Otto Bauer, the nation is a group of men with perman characters grow because of fate.
d. Understand geopolitics, teaches that the desire arises because of a unified sense of unity among the people where.

Factor-growth factor yng mndorong attitudes and feelings of nationalism and pride as a nation among others: the seed of equality, language, culture, customs, political unity, tradition and religion.

b. Development Nasiolisme

Nationalism in Europe started in Iggris when the Puritans in the k-18 th century meant implement the three fundamental sense of nationality, namely: awareness of the nation as a chosen, have the expectations of the future as promised by God, and tasks to improve the world. This raises kebanggan nationalism (national pride) of the English nation. English nationalism is then followed oeh France and Germany.

Nationalism in the United States started from the perbedan treatment between those who tingga in the English colonies (Ameika) with living in the UK. This difference made the distinction that the rights they should have. Akan demand equality of rights endorong this emerging spirit of nationalism. Kebngsaan this feeling and encourage immigrants and able to unify the different American tribes, religion, enis and nations and languages.

Nationalism in Asia terdorog by feelings and the will to be able to get out / separated from the bond of occupation. Nasionlisme in Asia because of the feeling munul the same boat as a colonial nation. Country / nation in Asia yag nationalism, among other pioneer India, Egypt, the Philippines and China.
Movement of nationalism in India, among others, developed by:
– Brahma Samaj Movement, dipelopori by Rammohan Roy, meaning modernize the teachings / philosophy. Adapt customary well-outdated dihapuska disesuaika with western culture

– Jaran Rama Krisna, dipelopori by Swami Vivekananda, brtujuan rarefy Hindu teachings, not to the material

– Theosofi Movement, led by Anni Besant. Excavate and revive the original Indian culture. The goal is embed-value and self ilai and kebanggan past India

– Teachings and Movement Pembarun Santiniketan, dipelopori by Rabindranath Tagore, in the conduct of the education goals embed dngan love country, love the people and culture.

– Mahatma Gandhi, the movement teaches swadesi (using materials made in the country sediri), ahimsa (forbidden to kill: do not fight with the violence), ocher (do not do anything; entered the office but does not work), Satyagraha (not working with the pemeritah English)

2. Liberalism

Liberalism is a struggle toward freedom, consisting of political and economic liberalism. Political liberalism of developing awareness that the source of progress lies in the development of human personality-free. Liberalism is a political movement perlawaan against the king absolutisme. John Locke is Pelopornya dr English, Voltaire, Montesquieu, and JJ Roussou Emmanuel from France and Germany Khant dr. Political liberalism dipelopori Leh Adam Smith from the UK. Economic liberalism is based akan confidence that the individuals who enjoy the free himself; syaratnya personal property rights must be maintained, as the government may not intervene in economic life (laissez faire)

Liberalism began to grow rapidly in the United States until later spread to Europe, such as the development of revolutionary France.

3. Socialism

Understand the teachings of socialism is that people want order organized collectively to become a prosperous community. Socialism is the term all the economic doctrine yag rights against the totality of all personal property and support the use of personal property for the general welfare. Socialism appears as the reaction of the system of liberal capitalism delivered. Socialism after rrvolusi french industrial revolution and then spread to Europe and all over the world.

Socialism in its development is divided into two namely:
a. democrat or socialist socialism with cirri:
– Select a way to achieve the goal of evolution
– Personal property permitted only companies that are important to the community must be owned by the state
– Distribution and consumption based on the needs

b. communism, with the cirri:
– Select a revolutionary way to achieve the goal
– Personal property is not permitted
– Distribution and consumption based on the needs

4. Democracy

The term democracy comes from the Greek word demos meaning people and that means that the rule kratein and kratos that means pemerinthan. So democracy is government of the people; pemerinthan of the people, by the people and for the people.
Foundations of democracy are:
– The conduct of the state of democracy is that elected representatives of the people
– How to implement the power of democracy is the will remember senntiasa / keingina people
– Banyakya power of the state of democracy can not be carried out can be determined with the numbers, but as much as possible to obtain the desired results of the people.

Principles of democracy:
a. keterlibaan citizens in political decision-making
b. a certain level of equality among citizens
c. level of freedom or independence tertntu recognized and used citizen
d. a representative system
e. a selection system based on the power of the majority


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