Physical infrastructures that man build can crumble and decay. But when we build- up the capacity in people, it lasts for generations, and helps to speeden the development process.
Development of Human Resources is unequivocally the first pre-requisite for both individual success and collective national progress. At the minimum, human development guarantees that the people lead long and healthy lives, knowledgeable, have access to the resources needed for decent standard of living and capable of contributing in the community life.
Human Resource Development (HRD) has gained importance in the working of various types of organizations. Optimum use of present and future manpower is a very vital question and requires considerable thinking and planning. Manpower variable is to adjust and readjust to meet the dynamic needs of the society. HRD gained increasing application as a goal, and process in the development field. As a goal it is equated with the development of human capacity and upliftment of human aspirations. Education, training, instructions etc, are the basic and popular ways to develop human as a resource.
Objective of this Paper
The purpose of this paper is to add the development of knowledge on HRD macro strata and to focus on Bangladesh perspective.
Human Resource Development and Different School of thoughts:
Different schools define human Resource differently. Among the prominent a few have been discussed here.
Human Development: Basically Human development is biological, but in economic sense the concept of human development includes civilization of endogenous vision, aptitude to produce methodical and technical knowledge, inward looking participative approach.
Human Resource: In public administration, Human Resource in generally means total quantitative and qualitative human assets or people in a society.
Definitionof Human Resource Development (HRD): HRD deals with creating conditions that enable people to get the best out of themselves and their lives. Generally the term Human Resource Development is defined as a process of systematize, organizing and enhancing the physical, mental and emotional capacity of individuals for productive and creative effort.
In terms of process, Human Resource Development fasten the activities related to education, training, empowerment, awareness raising, skill enhancement, team building, community mobilization and development, organization development, entrepreneurship development, sensitization, and conscientisation, Human resource planning and policy.
Human Resource Development An interdisciplinary perspective.
Human Resource Development is indeed a very fascinating theme but at the same time it is a perplexing issue of development activity Human Resource Development has an interdisciplinary perspective. It is certainly fascinating because there are several dimensions of human resources that have to be considered. It is confusing because it is interdisciplinary in nature. It is necessary to critically analyze the conceptual frame of Human Resource Development from interdisciplinary angles too! Social sciences, particularly psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, political science and Management have contributed much to the widening of the concept of Human Resource Development.
Sociology and Human Resource Development: Sociology helps us to study group-ism, family, societies, sociology of crowds, ad hoc groups, culture, mob formation etc. All these elements have direct or indirect impact on Human Development.
Psychology and Human Resource Development: Psychology focuses on the mental activities of individuals, like aspiration, motivation, aptitude etc. In designing and implementing Human Resource Development, organizations apply psychological instruments.
Anthropology and Human Resource Development: It is a science dealing with human history. It focuses the traditions, cultures, kinship, myths, tribes, human evolutions etc. In managing humans, we study inter-racial amity, inter-cultural relationship, and conflicts to develop a good organizational climate.
Political Science and Human Resource Development: Knowledge of political science helps the citizens to develop their idea about his /her role in the society. For Human Resource Development we need to study different political ideologies because political values drive the humans in many different ways.
Economics and Human Resource Development: It provides the explanations for the generation and consumption of material wealth and labor. In economic terms, Human Resource Development means accumulation of human capital and its effective utilization for the development of economy. In Economics, skilled labor is considered as human capital.
Management and Human Resource Development: Management is the latest addition of the social science. In management, behavioral science is discussed under the discipline of Organizational Behavior. Personnel management or Human Resource Management is the key discipline of Management that directly deals with Human Resource Development.
Public Administration and Human Resource Development: In public administration the term Human Resource Development is understood as developing of Government workforce for an optimal performance. Human Resource Development at Public Administration level would include enhancing the capacity of government employees for higher efficiency, higher productivity, higher effectiveness, better personality etc. For Human Resource Development in Public Administration field following points must be emphasized.
1. Inculcate new ethical value. 2. Arrest obsolescence 3. Increase physical capacity and mental horizon. 4. Develop personality for productive work.
Applications and Process of HRD
At this episode, HRD is considered to be the domain of Management and Public Administration, and all other disciplines are deemed to be auxiliary. The paper will discuss HRD from management and economic point of view. We took HRD in two economic levels.
1. Human Resource Development at Macro economic level or National level
2. Human Resource Development at Micro economic level or Organizational level
Human Resource Development at Macro economic level or National level:
At the national level, HRD aims at ensuring that people in the country live disease- hunger-free long & happy life; have sufficient skill-base to earn their own livelihood and well-being, have sense of belongingness and pride through participation in determining their own destinies. The Emerging concept of HRD puts people at the center of development, as it is by the people, and not to mention, for the people. Thus human development instead of stressing on the formation of human-capital for development emphasizes on enlarging people’s choices in order to improve their quality of life.
Historically, HRD has referred to developing human resource in order to increase economic productivity and therefore a nation’s wealth that is, very closely linked with economic output.
HRD at national level plays a great role by being a source of Manpower source and so do feeding the private and governmental sectors. There the good Governance and state’s role of HRD derives. HRD at Macro level is a continuing process comprising three independent components:
I. Investment in human resource to enhance productive capabilities. II. Utilization of those human resources to produce increased output. III. Participation of the human beings who have improved resources, i.e. better education, skill levels etc., in the consumptions of that increased output through a better quality of life.
Broad areas of activities of Human Resource Development at National level:
1.To Establish HRD policies.
2.To Ensure good socioeconomic environment for Human Development.
3.To set fundamental and professional training and education for HRD.
4. Total Manpower planning of the country.
Stages of Human Resource Development:
Physical and Mental Development (Human Development Stage):
Genetic and psychological development of human ensures good health, hygienic environment, and sound social life.
Skill Development (Professional or Career Development Stage): Educational development through schooling or institutional education, professional and technical training, career development program, etc.
Moral and Ethical Development: Individual character development program ensures dedication to national development, patriotism, and good ethical behavior.
Strategic Interventions in HRD Sectors and Target Groups
Strategic Interventions means Governments strategic involvement in HRD through proper utilization of given resources. It is necessary for them to make strategic choices at every stage for optimal utilization of resources and best possible achievement of HRD goals. Every Country gets their plans to gain strategic advantages on the basis of factors like – own needs, objectives, history, resources and so on. As there are so many elements in HRD to attain various goals, target-oriented strategies require to be planned by the government to create a firm base of HRD. For example, girl’s education, poverty alleviation, health and sanitation, etc.
The strategic choices in terms of target groups, strategic HRD sectors, and implementation process and methodologies include.
1. Health, nutrition, sanitation and water supply.
2. Adult literacy and primary education.
3. Technical, vocational and higher education.
4. Sciences and technology.
1. Women and girls.
2. Poor and unemployed, particularly the youth.
Implementation Methodologies and processes:
1. Involvement of Non-Government Development Organization’s
2. Decentralization and participation
3. Mobilization of resources and optimization of their use.
4. Interagency coordination.
5. Professionalization of Government.
6. Good Governance.
Challenges of Human Resource Development at National Development Perspective:
Present wave of the new millennium like economic liberalization and globalization brought a number of opportunities for dominance and also some threats for the survival of many countries, such as:
1. Over population (Causes incompetent resource management)
2. Rising Globalization. (Difficult to set a global standard of HRD due to inequalities
of natural resources and geographical differences among the countries.)
3.Changes in Technology
4.Multi cultural impact on human behavior.
5.Lack in Governance.
6.National and international political conflict.
Human Resource Development and Bangladesh:
Human Resource Development is not only training the people but also managing the people. The Ministry of Education of Bangladesh is the apex body so far as the human resource development is concerned. It is responsible for the development of post primary sector to higher education including Madrasah, Technical and vocational education. There are several attached bodies for supervision and management of formal education in post primary and secondary Schools, Colleges, Madrasahs, Vocational Training Institutes, Polytechnic Institute and much more. It has been considered as one of the strategies effective for HRD, poverty alleviation, and socioeconomic development culminating into national development. Government has sustained development endeavor through educational expansion and quality improvement in different sub-sectors of education.