Getting Started With Writing For International

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Welcome to the process of writing your research results as a paper for submission
to an international refereed journal! You may speak and write English as your first
language, or as an additional language: we have written this book for all inexperienced
authors of scientific papers, and for all authors wanting improved strategies
for writing effective papers in an efficient way.
In this book we will use other terms as well as paper for what you are aiming to
write: it may be called a manuscript, a journal article, or a research article. (See
Chapter 2 for comments on other types of scientific article.) All of these terms are
in use in books and websites providing information and advice about this type of
document: this genre. The concept of genre is important for the way this book
works, as we have based our approach in writing it on the findings of researchers
who work in the field of genre analysis. These researchers study documents of
a particular type to identify the features that make them recognizable as what
they are.
One of the key concepts in use in this field of research is the idea of the audience
for a document as a key factor in helping an author write effectively. Whenever
you write any document, it is helpful to think first about your audience: whom do
you see in your mind’s eye as the reader of what you are writing? So we will begin
now by thinking about the audience for a scientific research article.
Who is your audience?
Often the audience that you think of first is your scientific peers – people working
in areas related to yours who will want to know about your results – and this is
certainly a primary audience for a research article. However, there is another
‘‘audience’’ whose requirements must be met before your peers will even get a
chance to see your article in print: the journal editor and referees (also called
reviewers; see Chapters 3, 13, and 14 for more information). These people are
often thought of as gate-keepers (or as a filter), because their role is to ensure that
only articles that meet the journal’s standards and requirements are allowed to
Writing Scientific Research Articles: Strategy and Steps, 1st edition. By M. Cargill and


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