The need to differentiate between structural and functional aspects of the psychology of art …
The psychology of art is a complex issue, and this description serves only as an introduction to a “development” of discipline. Psychology is the basis for many aspects of life and art or expression of art in all its forms and especially through sculpture and painting is also based on psychological theories and understanding. The relationship between psychology and art are almost inevitable, and there can be no art without psychology and vice versa. The artist starts with a blank canvas on which he / she projects her own psychological and art remains as a means for such a projection. Thus, art is defined as a means by which an artist or creative individual projects of his feelings and frustrations and deepest psychological needs. On the way art is inextricably linked to psychology. But the psychology of art as a formal discipline has not found wide recognition and has only recently gained popularity in Western universities.
Psychology of Art, however, is a fascinating field of study as it is to analyze the core of creativity and an explanation of mental processes, and especially the artist and the creative person in general. Still, interesting, psychology, art is not only limited understanding of the mental processes of the artist but also the mental processes of perceiving art. Thus, psychology and art, offers an explanation of the phenomena of creativity, mental processes, and the artist as well as the thought processes of the observer. This is a comprehensive approach, not only the various explanations, but also because the psychology of art associated with explanations of the various areas of psychology such as Gestalt psychology of perception, the psychology of form and function / sequence, and the complexity of psychoanalysis Jungian psychology, and attention to experimental psychology and Freudian symbolism.
Psychology is a multidisciplinary arts, the successful integration of art, architecture, philosophy (metaphysics and phenomenology), aesthetics, the study of consciousness, visual perception, and psychoanalysis. As the philosopher John Dewey, is a psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung, 20 century intellectuals influenced the emergence of the psychology of art that seemed to have progressed to include the mental processes of the artist’s creative process and even the idea of perspectives to study art in biological, social, psychological and philosophical. Dewey, and Jung, both have contributed to the study of art in social and cultural environments, and are largely responsible for understanding art in its present form.
Art is obviously a creative process and is a deep psychological process as well. The art can be explained by the theory of perception as a cognitive process. The Gestalt theory of visual perception will offer one of the main explanations of artistic creation and perception. Gestalt theorists were the 20th century, psychologists, who have systematically studied perceptual processes in humans and some of the famous Gestalt, Wolfgang Köhler, Kurt Koffka, Max Wertheimer and Kurt Lewin. The principles of perception, as described in the Gestalt psychology, focusing on proximity or touch, equality, continuity, closure, area / symmetry and figure and ground.
Thus Gestalists described perception as a process that involves not only the object but also the context in which the perception of objects are influenced by what surrounds these objects so that the Gestalt, things are always “more than the sum of their parts. “As the art is mainly on the perception, our perception of any object depends on the Gestalt principles as well and we are inclined to see the continuation or closure or even perceive motion in the static objects . Gestalt has been widely used to describe and understand “visual illusions”. For example, objects that are close to each other, be perceived as a group. If you’ve seen some of these pictures that explain the principles of Gestalt you will soon understand that there is more art than simple brush strokes, the art is as much a process of perception (including illusions) because it This is a creative process. If an artist creates a successful visual illusion that is almost like a magician.
But art has various dimensions, and the explanation of the study and understanding of the gestalt form and structure, which provides an explanation of “structural” of the organizational principles of art, we must understand the “functional” elements of art. This in turn provides a psychoanalysis and symbolism.
In the early 20th century Sigmund Freud, a pioneer in the study of art in its psychoanalytic considering the artist as a neurotic essentially dealing with psychological pressures and conflicts with their creative impulses. Freud was interested in the “content” or subject of art that reflects the inner conflicts and repressed desires of the artist and art of Freud as any psychoanalyst, is now seen as essentially a projection of the artist’s mind and thought process . Freud believed that unconscious desires and fantasies of the artist internally and externally on the web is manifested through art. Therefore, if an artist fantasizes about beautiful virtuous women, painted angels in heaven as a kind of “sublimation” of his deep desire. Therefore, any work of art is directly related to the artist’s inner world and unconscious regions of the mind.
A school of art that was directly influenced by Freudian theory appears directly in the unconscious is Surrealism began in the 20th century, first as a product of a cultural movement, Dada. Surrealism emphasizes the integration of art and life with influences and focuses on the psychoanalytic unconscious desires. The psychology of Jacques Lacan to the philosophy of Hegel, Surrealism was largely determined by the philosophy, psychology and cultural change, and was one of the most revolutionary movements in art history.
Some of his supporters were famous André Breton and, more recently, Salvador Dali. In fact, Dali’s work could be considered almost a visual representation of Freud’s emphasis on the analysis of dreams, desires and hallucinations unconscious and free association. Sexual symbolism, an important part of Freudian analysis has been widely used by the Surrealists. Freud and Surrealism emphasized a closer link between madness, sexuality and art, but this type of representation has been met with some opposition. On the other hand, psychoanalysis Carl Jung and the emphasis on art as a form of cultural expression was more acceptable to some artists and the psychoanalyst Jung remains the most influential in the history of art with his optimistic and constructive image of art.
According to Jung, art and other creative efforts to access the “collective unconscious” and provide significant insight not only the creative process, but also the cultural elements of the mind being carried through the generations. In Jungian psychology, art as a psychological process would be an assimilation of the cultural experiences of the artist, so it is accessible to a wider community.
Thus, the psychology of art as it evolves into a major discipline and the study area could be considered to have two different branches –
or structural psychology of art – which highlights the “structural” aspects of art collecting by the way, the organization that understands the principles of Gestalt and the emphasis on the overall structure, also with the principles of physiology and visual perception
o Functional Psychology of art – which focuses on art as a creative process that represents the “functional” aspects or mental dynamics of the artist, substance over form and can be understood to overview of psychoanalysis and phenomenology.
The structural part is primarily concerned with the processes of perception and the perception of art and functional branch is related to the artist and the process of creating art. These two dimensions are equally important and complement each other in a global conceptual art psychology.