How Maximum Speed Changes Space, Time And Gravity

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“Sapere aude.* Horace Epistulae, 1, 2, 40.”

Observation shows that gravitational influences do transport energy.**

ur description of gravity must therefore include the speed limit.

nly a description that takes into account that the limit speed for energy

transport can be a precise description of gravity. Henri Poincaré stated this requirement

for a precise description of gravitation as early as 1905. But universal gravity, with its

relation a = GM/r2, allows speeds higher than that of light. For example, the speed of

a mass in orbit is not limited. In universal gravity it is also unclear how the values of

a and r depend on the observer. In short, universal gravity cannot be correct. In order

to reach the correct description, called general relativity by Albert Einstein, we have to

Ref. 112, Ref. 113 throw quite a few preconceptions overboard.

Theresults of combining maximumspeed with gravity will be fascinating: we will find

that empty space can bend and move, that the universe has a finite age and that objects

can be in permanent free fall.We will discover that even though empty space can be bent,

it ismuch stiffer than steel.Despite the strangeness of these and other consequences, they

have all been confirmed by all experiments performed so far.

Rest and free fall

The opposite of motion in daily life is a body at rest, such as a child sleeping or a rock

defying the waves. A body is at rest whenever it is not disturbed by other bodies. In

the everyday description of the world, rest is the absence of velocity. With Galilean and

special relativity, rest became inertial motion, since no inertially moving observer can

distinguish its own motion from rest: nothing disturbs him. Both the rock in the waves

and the rapid protons crossing the galaxy as cosmic rays are at rest. With the inclusion

of gravity, we are led to an even more general definition of rest.

⊳ Every observer and every body in free fall can rightly claim to be at rest.

Challenge 173 e If any body moving inertially is to be considered at rest, then any body in free fall must

also be. Nobody knows this better than Joseph Kittinger, the man who in August 1960


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