HOW MAXIMUM SPEED CHANGES
SPACE, TIME AND GRAVITY
“Sapere aude.* Horace Epistulae, 1, 2, 40.”
Observation shows that gravitational influences do transport energy.**
ur description of gravity must therefore include the speed limit.
nly a description that takes into account that the limit speed for energy
transport can be a precise description of gravity. Henri Poincaré stated this requirement
for a precise description of gravitation as early as 1905. But universal gravity, with its
relation a = GM/r2, allows speeds higher than that of light. For example, the speed of
a mass in orbit is not limited. In universal gravity it is also unclear how the values of
a and r depend on the observer. In short, universal gravity cannot be correct. In order
to reach the correct description, called general relativity by Albert Einstein, we have to
Ref. 112, Ref. 113 throw quite a few preconceptions overboard.
Theresults of combining maximumspeed with gravity will be fascinating: we will find
that empty space can bend and move, that the universe has a finite age and that objects
can be in permanent free fall.We will discover that even though empty space can be bent,
it ismuch stiffer than steel.Despite the strangeness of these and other consequences, they
have all been confirmed by all experiments performed so far.
Rest and free fall
The opposite of motion in daily life is a body at rest, such as a child sleeping or a rock
defying the waves. A body is at rest whenever it is not disturbed by other bodies. In
the everyday description of the world, rest is the absence of velocity. With Galilean and
special relativity, rest became inertial motion, since no inertially moving observer can
distinguish its own motion from rest: nothing disturbs him. Both the rock in the waves
and the rapid protons crossing the galaxy as cosmic rays are at rest. With the inclusion
of gravity, we are led to an even more general definition of rest.
⊳ Every observer and every body in free fall can rightly claim to be at rest.
Challenge 173 e If any body moving inertially is to be considered at rest, then any body in free fall must
also be. Nobody knows this better than Joseph Kittinger, the man who in August 1960