Bali, which is also called the Island of the Gods, Paradise Island, or the island of a thousand temples, is located between Java and Lombok. The largest Java is located to the west, while Lombok is located east of Bali. Geographically, Bali is the westernmost of the islands of Sunda. Administrative, Bali is one of the 33 provinces of Indonesia in Denpasar on the south side of the island as its capital.
Bali is home to the Hindu community of small size. In 2010. 92.29% of the total population of 3,891,000 adheres to Balinese Hinduism rest of the track adheres to Islam, Buddhism and Christianity. Bali is known as the largest tourist destination in Indonesia and also known in the world. The popular image of the island is that it is rich with a fine art of traditional and modern sculpture, leather, paint, dance, music and metal.
The history of Bali
The first inhabitants of Bali is a Austronesian people, who came in 2000 BC. They came to Taiwan through the South China Sea. So these people are closer to the people of the Philippines, Indonesia and Oceania, archipelago in terms of linguistic and cultural. Historical objects dating from this period are the stone tools found to be too far from the village in the western part Cekik. There are nine ancient Hindu sects, and Bali each have their own personality and divinity, that Ganapatya, Returns, Brahma, Tipper, Waisnawa, Siwa sidhe, Bodhi, and Bhairawa Pasupata.
Several inscriptions show that the name of Dwipa Bali or Bali island had appeared since the early days of the first millennium. One of the inscriptions mentioned in the island is the mainstay Blanjong which was created by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914. The entry in the column mentioned Walidwipa the island. Subak, the complex irrigation system of Bali, which is well known, was developed during this time. Some of the cultural and religious traditions that can be seen today have their roots in this period also, so many more Indian influence is considered a gift for AD. In 1343, the great Hindu empire of Majapahit in East Java founded a colony here. Bali has become the final destination of the exodus of artists, priests, musicians and priests, when the empire eventually declined in the 15th century.
Portuguese were the first Europeans to have contact with the island. In 1585 a Portuguese ship sank off the Bukit Peninsula. A few Portuguese were then left to serve Dewa Agung. Cornelis de Houtman, Dutch explorer who had made contact with Banten in West Java, arrived in Bali in 1597. But only since 1840 that the Dutch rather than political and economic control over Bali, especially in the north. It was a time when the Balinese kingdoms fought among themselves, which was set up more by the Dutch. The Dutch also used the kingdoms of southern Bali since the 1890s.
The year 1906 saw a massive struggle to balance the Sanur area between the Dutch forces against thousands of members of the royal family of Bali and his followers. At that time, the Dutch launched a naval and land to gain control over the southern part of the island. The Balinese responded with a suicidal resistance on the defensive because I will not be humiliated. The same battle is known as Puputan, also broke in 1908 in Klungkung region. After the fight asymmetrical, the Dutch finally managed to take administrative control of Bali, despite the culture and religion in general are still kept in their entirety by the local authorities. However, the Dutch control was unable to gain full control of the island and had control of Ambon and Java.
The popular image of Bali as “an enchanted land of aesthetes at peace with himself and nature” was created in 1930. Works by musicologist Colin McPhee, artist Walter Spies and Miguel Covarrubias, and anthropologists Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead, together to build the image, which further developed the first Western tourism in Bali.
Bali was occupied by Imperial Japan during World War II. It ‘was during this period that Gusti Ngurah Rai, formed the Army Freedom. However, the Japanese are not able to supervise the administrative affairs effectively because of the great times of war and difficult institutional change in Dutch rule. When Japan surrendered in August 1945, the Dutch returned to the control of the size of Indonesia, including Bali. However, this movement has met with strong resistance. Bali, the resistance of the Dutch started using weapons from Japan. I Gusti Ngurah Rai, Colonel, 29 years old when he led an army Marga Rana, Tabanan, in the center of Bali, to launch a suicide attack, or heavily armored against the power of the Dutch Puputan. The battle took place on November 29, 1946 balinese army completely eliminated, and thus ended the military resistance against the Dutch.
In 1946, the Dutch Bali included as one of 13 administrative districts of the State of East Indonesia. This state was founded by the Dutch to compete with the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed by Sukarno and Hatta on August 17, 1945. When the Republic of the United States of Indonesia was established in the Round Table Conference December 29, 1949, Bali was included in the new state was recognized by the Dutch.
Eruption of Mount Agung in 1963 killed thousands of people. The economic situation has been forced to destroy most of the survivors to transmigrate into other areas of the Republic of Indonesia. Between 1950 and 1960, Bali saw conflict between supporters of the caste system, and those who rejected the traditional values. The conflict was typical of that time in Indonesia and had been politicized by the Indonesian Communist Party, PKI, or rejected the caste system and the Indonesian Nationalist Party, which supports the traditional PNI. The excitement had culminated in the agrarian reform has launched a PKI. However, when the coup, which is associated with the PKI broke up in Jakarta, followed by removal of the PKI and its supporters of General Suharto, Bali was also impressed. Bali alone, at least 80,000 people died in anti-communist purge, which is equivalent to 5 percent of the total population of the ‘island at that time.
There is no Islamic forces on the island, so the owners PNI were pretty easy when you take the lead in the showdown in Bali.
According to General Suharto assumed the presidency of President Sukarno in 1966, the New Order regime reestablished relations with western countries. The renewed relationship resulted in the growth of tourism, promoted Bali Paradise Island. Foreign trade and life in Bali have changed radically with the development of tourism. However, when a massive bombing by Islamic militants in 2002 destroyed the tourist area of Kuta, killing 202 people, most of whom are foreigners, the economic boom ended abruptly. Another bombing in 2005 put the tourism industry in trouble. However, the number of tourists by the year 2010 had returned to levels before the attacks.