Starting with a fever and the appearance of the rash in the mouth in the form of red spots, which later became a lesion or blister. When you find these symptoms, beware! Singapore could be a flu or HFMD (Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease).
Initial symptoms are fever for 2 days and a mouth full of canker sores. On the child’s hands and feet appear red blotches. Moreover, he did not want to eat, but still want to drink milk.
Is it true that this disease be dangerous? Rumors are circulating, as dangerous as Singapore Flu Bird Flu? Does my child need to be treated? When children get the disease, do not panic. HFMD is usually mild viral infection, provided that immediately gets the right treatment.
Causes and Symptoms of HFMD
HFMD lately rampant again. Later, the case is quite commonly found in Indonesia. Flu is actually a term for HFMD in Singapore this is less precise. This term appears because of the HFMD outbreak in 2000 in Singapore, so the disease is more commonly known as flu Singapore.
Virus derived from enterovirus group (non-polio) is a cause of HFMD. In it include Coxsackie group type A (A1-A24), Coxsackie type B (B1-B26), Echovirus (groups 1-33), and enterovirus (68-71). The most common cause in the case of outpatient care is Coxsackie A16. While enterovirus infection that requires treatment usually leads to enterovirus 71.
HFMD symptoms of fever was initiated for 2-3 days, followed by sore throat (pharyngitis), no appetite, runny nose, which is a flu-like symptoms in general are not lethal. Then, arising vesicles (fluid-filled bumps) on the mouth, then broke, the wounds or blisters in the mouth like canker sores on the tongue, gums, cheeks in, who feels pain so hard to swallow.
That is not itchy rashes on the palms and feet. Sometimes rashes in the buttocks. Although his name of hand, foot and mouth, the rash does not appear at all three sites. Sometimes just in the mouth and hand. Generally, this rash will get better by itself and did not need hospital treatment.
HFMD transmission and Handling
In general, HFMD is not dangerous. HFMD Coxsackie A16 is a mild disease and will heal in 7-10 days. Complications are rarely encountered. Very rare to find children with Coxsackie virus infection in viral meningitis with symptoms of high fever, headache, stiff neck, thus requiring hospitalization.
Group of enteroviruses obtained from HFMD Enterovirus 71 can cause viral meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain), encephalitis (brain inflammation), or paralysis (paralysis). Due to enterovirus 71 encephalitis can be fatal.
The disease is highly contagious and often occur in the summer. Transmission through the digestive tract, respiratory tract, ie from grain saliva, nasal mucus, saliva, feces, fluid from the wound, and other body fluids.
Indirect contact transmission can occur through the goods, towels, clothes, food equipment and toys are contaminated secretions (fluids) of the body. Since the starting infected until symptoms begin to appear (incubation period) is 3-7 days. Fever is the first symptom of HFMD. A will transmit the disease within the first week when she is sick.
HFMD most often affects children under the age of 10 years. Every person, whether child or adult, has the risk of becoming infected, but not all infected it will hurt. Infants, children, and adolescents are more vulnerable to infection and illness of HFMD is because their immune antibodies and weaker than adults.
HFMD course of the disease is diagnosed based on history and physical examination. While the laboratory diagnosis for the detection of the virus can be done by taking samples of stool, rectal swabs or swabs serobrospinal fluid, wound swabs or swabs in the mouth, throat, skin vesicles, and brain biopsy.
There is no specific treatment for enterovirus infections. Ensure adequate rest and symptomatic therapy to relieve symptoms of fever and pain in the mouth. Children can be given an antiseptic for the mouth area, analgesic-antipyretics such as paracetamol, enough fluids, and other supportive treatment. When there are symptoms severe enough, then the patient should be hospitalized.
Symptoms are quite severe, among others, hyperpyrexia, namely high fever (temperature> 39 ° C), fever does not go down and down, tachycardia (pulse becomes fast), takipneu (shortness of breath becomes rapid and), lazy to eat, vomiting, diarrhea, repeated with dehydration, fatigue and drowsiness continues, pain in the neck, arms and legs, or cranial nerve paralysis.
Prevent HFMD with hygiene, environmental sanitation and personal. The easiest way is to get used to always wash hands, especially when adjacent to the patient.
Disinfection equipment necessary food, toys, and towels that may have been contaminated with liquid chlorine. Avoid contact with HFMD patient and rest while children with HFMD from school or child care, to prevent transmission of the virus to other children.
Nursing Tips HFMD
1. Immediately to the doctor to ascertain whether the child or patient is exposed to HFMD
2. Isolate the patient
4. Encourage adequate rest
5. Provide adequate fluid intake to prevent dehydration
6. Provide a healthy nutrition and balanced nutrition
7. Give symptomatic medications to reduce symptoms of fever and sore mouth
8. Instruct patient not to move out (to school or to the office) for 7-10 days after the rash appears