If garbage is allowed to collect in open places, it attracts files and other insects. As garbage rots, a large number of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi are produced.
Some of these microorganisms are disease producing. They stick to the hairy feet and other parts of the files. When these flies sit on uncovered food material, they leave this disease causing germs there. When people consume such infected food, they fall sick. Files may also transfer these germs to open cuts and wounds or cause infection of the eye and skin.
The waste gives bad odor. When thrown on road it makes them narrow and dirty. It makes the place look ugly too.
Another serous threat to the human health is the transfer of waste to water supplies either in surface water or in water treatment plants which are not very effective treating all kinds of waste. Industrial waste which is discharged into rivers may affect the health of humans and animals who consume this water.
Transportation of industrial waste from one place to another, if not carried out efficiently, can lead to leakage and cause illness, contamination of crops or water supplies.
Health risks exist for the sanitary workers who need to be protected as far as possible from the direct contact with wastes. There are even greater risks in handling wastes from hospitals and clinics.
Open garbage dumps pose even greater hazards during rainy season and on windy days.
Rain water makes things worse by causing an increasing in the growth of bacteria and fungi. It also tends to dissolve part of the garbage and go down the drain affecting water supplies.
Airborne litter is a major nuisance in countries where paper and plastic content is more in the garbage. During dry seasons when winds blow they carry lighter paper and polythene bags to far off areas along with the germs sticking to them.
Previously, burning of garbage was considered a good way to counter accumulation of garbage and its related problems. Ho0wever, the soil and air pollution produced in the process in the drawback in this method and it has been discarded.
Therefore, we must find more efficient ways for storage and disposal of waste to protect human health.