How The First Cpu Was Organized– (2)

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Whether in the oldest calculators

Or the newest computers.

All computing depends upon the versatile

And complicated parts called registers.

Each register is specially “trained” for a particular work.

Each register is made of hundreds of logic gates

Each register is a long row of electronic chambers

To keep long strings of zeroes and ones inside.

The register’s logic circuits examine the strings.

Some strings are divided into smaller strings

And then forward them to their destinations

Bigger strings travel the twenty lane/ thirty lane /forty lane roads.

Some the eight lane /twelve lane/sixteen lane roads.

Dr von Neumann constructed

Powerful “processors” using groups of registers.

Each processor is like a big government office

Employing dozens of specially trained clerks.

The CPU or the “central processing unit”

Was the chief processor or commander-in-chief

And the ALU or the “arithmetic and logic unit”

Was the mathematics brain of the calculator.

.But we should note that each processor

Contains dozens of the special “registers”

Which process the 010101 strings in different ways.

Specified and highly standardized electric pulses

Flow between all the computer parts

When the CPU switches on special circuits.

Only such pulses enable data to flow

Between the different computer parts.

Like the registers, the inputting and outputting parts,

And between the CPU and ALU

And the memory houses of the “magnetic main memory” board.

Highly standardized electric pulses

Travelling to and fro every single moment

Between the parts constitute a kind of signal language

Based on which the CPU works

Like the internal commander-in- chief.

The CPU sends to the versatile registers

A system of accurately coded electric pulses

To make them do specific duties.

The registers too send coded signals to the CPU and ALU.


The electric pulses are a kind of yes/no signals.

If the correct electric pulses

In the predetermined order are not received

By the central controlling circuits of CPUor ALU.

All work would be suspended

And a coded message would be generated

Asking for help of the human engineer.

The von Neumann architecture made the ALU

A pure and simple mathematics professor

Without any duties of switching circuits.

The CPU was in charge of all switching

It was the chief switching officer

And the commander in chief

Having powers over all registers and also over the ALU

Only the CPU could switch on or switch off

All the electrical and mathematical circuits

After receiving signals from the parts

In response to its own electric pulses.

Perhaps there are thousands of such standardized yes/no codes

But the CPU is really not the commander- in- chief!

It is the abject slave of the human engineer and nothing more!

The CPU is required to implement instructions

Of the human engineer step by step with out any grumbling.

(However it could point out problems to human engineer

Through specially coded automatic messages).

The human engineer first types on a key board

The “instructions” using English like “reserved words”.

(The “reserved words” are actually codes

For big electric circuits that run the computer’s parts.)

First he uses only the ordinary numbers

And letters of alphabet or symbols

Like commas and full stops just as we write on paper

A machine converts the letters and numbers into 010101 code

The machine cuts tiny zeroes and ones on packs of thick paper cards.

Still another machine using photo electric cells

Would convert the 010101 code of holes

Existing on the punched cards

Into a code of electrical pulses

Exactly matching the above 010101 code

The electric code is in two specified voltages

And flows to the magnetic main memory board

And crates an equivalent 010101 magnetic code..

Only the flowing electric codes or

The equivalent recorded magnetic codes

Are understood by the CPU, ALU and registers. .

The CPU obtains a copy of the “instruction”

From the main memory board.

The copy of the instruction

Is received into a specified “data register” of the CPU.

The CPU is only chief switching officer

And directs the data register

To examine and process the instruction.


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