To treat a wound:
- Wash your hands thoroughly, using soap and water, or antiseptic solution.
- Wash the area around the wound using clean water.
- Wash the wound well. It is necessary to clean out all the dirt, as any dirt left in the wound can cause infection. A clean wound will heal quickly.
- After the wound has been cleaned, bandage the wound with a piece of clean cloth or gauze so that air can get to the wound and help it heal. Change the cloth or gauze daily, and check for any signs of infection.
- Never put animal or human faeces, or mud on a wound. These can cause dangerous infections like tetanus.
- Never put alcohol or tincture of iodine directly into a wound. This will damage the flesh and slow healing.
In case the scrape or cut has been caused by rusted metal, like a rusty nail, it is essential that a tetanus injection be given. This is available at your primary health centre.
Very high fever, if not brought down quickly, can be dangerous, especially in the case of small children.
Effective first aid steps are:
Bathing the patient with cool (not ice-cold) water, or placing pieces of cloth soaked in cool water on the forehead, chest arms and legs. Change the cloths often. Continue to do this until the fever is down to 100° F. give the patient lots of water with a little sugar or jaggery to drink. This will help to boost the energy level of the patient.
Care of a child in the first few years is very important. Child death is prevalent in developing countries.
There are several reasons behind it:
First seven days:
Underweight at birth, difficult delivery, breathing problem, premature delivery.
Within one month:
Apart from the reasons given above, death can be due to loose-motions, pneumonia, measles or whooping cough.
From 1st month to 12th month:
Malnutrition, pneumonia, fever, whooping cough, loose-motion
From one year to five years:
Malnutrition, measles, loose-motions, pneumonia.
For the prevention of the conditions mentioned earlier, the following measures are very important:
- Precautionary measures for premature and underweight birth.
- Complete course of vaccinations at right times.
- Monitoring the child’s growth.