Module 6: Introduction TO C And C++

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MODULE 6

————————————————-
#include
//for system()
#include


{
C++ codes…
}
————————————————-
should be changed to:
————————————————-
#include
//use C++ wrapper to call C functions from C++ programs…
#include
using namespace std;


{
C++ codes…
}
————————————————-
In VC++/VC++ .Net the iostream.h (header with .h) is not valid anymore.
It should be C++ header, so that it comply to the standard.
In older Borland C++ compiler this still works, but not proper any more…
and for standard C/C++ the portability should be no problem or better
you read Module23 at http://www.tenouk.com/Module23.html to get
the big picture…For C codes, they still C codes :o)
=========================================================================
=========================================================================

#include

int main()
{
float rate = 5.0;
int hours = 25;

float pay = (float) hours * rate;
printf(“\nPay = $%.2f \n”, pay);
return 0;
}

—————————————————————————————————

//Chnage the header files accordingly for other C++ examples…
//#include
//#include
//using namespace std;

#include
#include

int main()
{
int job_code;
double housing_allowance, entertainment_allowance, car_allowance;

cout<<“Available job codes: 1 or non 1:\n”< cout<<“Enter job code: “;
cin>>job_code;
//if 1 is selected
if(job_code==1)
{
car_allowance = 200.00;
housing_allowance = 800.00;
entertainment_allowance = 250.00;

cout<<“–THE BENEFITS–\n”;
cout<<“Car allowance: “< cout<<“Housing allowance: “< cout<<“Entertainment allowance: “< }
//other than 1
else
{
car_allowance = 100.00;
housing_allowance = 400.00;
entertainment_allowance = 150.00;

cout<<“–THE BENEFITS–\n”;
cout<<“Car allowance: “< cout<<“Housing allowance: “< cout<<“Entertainment allowance: “< }

system(“pause”);
return 0;
}

———————————————————————————————

#include
#include

int main()
{

char job_title;
int years_served, no_of_pub;

cout<<“Enter data \n”;
cout<<“Current job (Tutor-T, lecturer-L, Assoc prof-A): “;
cin>>job_title;
cout<<“Years served: “;
cin>>years_served;
cout<<“No of publication: “;
cin>>no_of_pub;

if(job_title == ‘T’)
{
if(years_served > 15)
if(no_of_pub > 10)
cout<<“\nPromote to lecturer”;
else
cout<<“\nMore publications required”;
else
cout<<“\nMore service required”;
}
else if(job_title == ‘L’)
{
if(years_served > 10)
if(no_of_pub > 5)
cout<<“\nPromote to Assoc professor”;
else
cout<<“\nMore publications required”;
else
cout<<“\nMore service required”;
}
else if(job_title == ‘A’)
{
if(years_served > 5)
if(no_of_pub > 5)
cout<<“\nPromote to professor”;
else
cout<<“\nMore publications required”;
else
cout<<“\nMore service required”;
}

cout<<“\n”;

system(“pause”);
return 0;
}

————————————————————————————-

#include
#include

int main()
{
int mark;

cout<<“Enter student’s mark: “;
cin>>mark;

if (mark < 40)
cout<<“Student grade = F”;
else if (mark < 50)
cout<<“Student grade = E”;
else if (mark < 60)
cout<<“Student grade = D”;
else if (mark < 70)
cout<<“Student grade = C”;
else if (mark < 80)
cout<<“Student grade = B”;
else
cout<<“Student grade = A”;
cout<<“\n”;

system(“pause”);
return 0;
}

————————————————————————————–

//Program example of if-else statement. This program
//is to test whether a banking transaction is a deposit,
//withdrawal, transfer or an invalid transaction,
//and to take the necessary action.

#include
#include

int main()
{
float amount;
char transaction_code;

cout<<“D – Cash Deposit, W – Cash Withdrawal, T – Cash Transfer\n”;
cout<<“\nEnter the transaction code(D, W, T); “;

cin>>transaction_code;

if (transaction_code == ‘D’)
{
cout<<“\nDeposit transaction”;
cout<<“\nEnter amount: “;
cin>>amount;
cout<<“\nPROCESSING….Please Wait”;
cout<<“\nAmount deposited: “< cout<<“\n—THANK YOU!/TERIMA KASIH!—“;
}
else
if (transaction_code == ‘W’)
{
cout<<“\nWithdrawal transaction”;
cout<<“\nEnter amount: “;
cin>>amount;
cout<<“\nPROCESSING….Please Wait”;
cout<<“\nAmount withdrawn: “< cout<<“\n—THANK YOU!/TERIMA KASIH!—“;
}
else
if (transaction_code == ‘T’)
{
cout<<“\nTransfer transaction”;
cout<<“\nEnter amount: “;
cin>>amount;
cout<<“\nPROCESSING….Please Wait”;
cout<<“\nAmount transferred: “< cout<<“\n—THANK YOU!/TERIMA KASIH!—“;
}
else {
cout<<“\nInvalid transaction!!”;
cout<<“D = Deposit, W = Withdrawal, T = Transfer”;
cout<<“\nPlease enters the correct transaction code: “;
}
cout<<“\n”;

system(“pause”);
return 0;
}

———————————————————————————

//Sample program, Menu selection
#include
#include

int main()
{
char selection;

cout<<“\n Menu”;
cout<<“\n========”;

cout<<“\n A – Append”;
cout<<“\n M – Modify”;
cout<<“\n D – Delete”;
cout<<“\n X – Exit”;
cout<<“\n Enter selection: “;
cin>>selection;
switch(selection)
{
case ‘A’ : {cout<<“\n To append a record\n”;}
break;
case ‘M’ : {cout<<“\n To modify a record”;}
break;
case ‘D’ : {cout<<“\n To delete a record”;}
break;
case ‘X’ : {cout<<“\n To exit the menu”;}
break;
//Other than A, M, D and X…
default : cout<<“\n Invalid selection”;
//No break in the default case
}
cout<<“\n”;

system(“pause”);
return 0;
}

———————————————————————————–

//A simple for statement
#include
#include

void main()
{
int count;

//display the numbers 1 through 10
for(count = 1; count <= 10; count++)
printf(“%d “, count);
printf(“\n”);

system(“pause”);
}

———————————————————————————–

//program to show the nested loops
#include
#include

int main()
{
//variables for counter…
int i, j;

//outer loop, execute this first…
for(i=1; i<11; i++)
{
cout<<“\n”<
//then…execute inner loop with loop index j
//the initial value of j is i + 1
for(j=i+1; j<11; j++)
//Display result…
cout< //increment counter by 1 for inner loop…
}
//increment counter by 1 for outer loop…
cout<<“\n”;

system(“pause”);
return 0;
}

————————————————————————————-

/*Nesting two for statements*/
#include
#include

//function prototype
void DrawBox(int, int);

void main()
{
//row = 10, column = 25…
//function call
DrawBox(10, 25);
}

void DrawBox(int row, int column)
{
int col;

//row, execute outer for loop…
//start with the preset value and decrement
//until 1
for( ; row > 0; row–)
{
//column, execute inner loop…
//start with preset col, decrement until 1
for(col = column; col > 0; col–)
//print #….
printf(“#”);
//decrement by 1 for inner loop…
//go to new line for new row…
printf(“\n”);
}
//decrement by 1 for outer loop…then repeat…

system(“pause”);
}

————————————————————————————–

//Demonstrates a simple while statement
#include
#include

int main()
{
int calculate;

//print the numbers 1 through 12
//set the initial value…
calculate = 1;

//set the while condition…
while(calculate <= 12)
{
//display…
printf(“%d “, calculate);
//increment by 1…repeats
calculate++;
}
printf(“\n”);

system(“pause”);
return 0;
}

————————————————————————————–

//Nested while statements
#include
#include

//this program have some array variable
//that you will learn in another module…
void main()
{
//array variable…
int arrange[5];
//normal variable
int count = 0,
number = 0;

printf(“\Prompting you for 5 numbers\n”);
printf(“Each number should be from 1 to 10\n”);

//while condition…
while(count<5)
{
//set the initial condition…
number = 0;

//another while condition…
while((number < 1) || (number > 10))
{
printf(“Enter number %d of 5: “, count + 1);
scanf(“%d”, &number);
}
//inner while loop stop here…
arrange[count]= number;
count++;
}
//outer while loop stop here…

//start the for loop for printing the result…
for (count = 0; count < 5; count++)
printf(“\nValue %d is %d”, count + 1, arrange[count]);
printf(“\n”);

system(“pause”);
}

————————————————————————————–

//program to illustrate a do…while loop
#include
#include

int main()
{
int selection;

do
{
cout<<“\n Menu”<<“\n”;
cout<<“\n 0. Exit”;
cout<<“\n 1. Append”;
cout<<“\n 2. Delete”;
cout<<“\n 3. Modify”;
cout<<“\n\n Enter selection: “;
cin>>selection;
}while((selection > 0) && (selection < 4));
//true for 1, 2 and 3 ONLY, then repeat
//false for other numbers including 0, then stop…
//the do loop is repeated if the while expression is true.

system(“pause”);
return 0;
}

————————————————————————————

//another do…while statement example
#include
#include

int get_menu_choice(void);

void main()
{
int choice;

choice = get_menu_choice();

printf(“You have chosen Menu #%d\n”, choice);
printf(“\n”);

system(“pause”);
}

int get_menu_choice(void)
{
int selection = 0;

do
{
printf(“1 – Add a record”);
printf(“\n2 – Change a record”);
printf(“\n3 – Delete a record”);
printf(“\n4 – Quit”);
printf(“\nEnter a selection: “);
scanf(“%d”, &selection );
} while ((selection < 1) || (selection > 4));

return selection;
}

———————————————————————————-

//example of the continue
#include
#include

void main()
{
//declare storage for input, an array
//and counter variable
char buffer[81];
int ctr;

//input and read a line of text using
//puts() and gets() are pre defined functions
//in stdio.h
puts(“Enter a line of text and press Enter key,”);
puts(“all the vowels will be discarded!:\n”);
gets(buffer);

//go through the string, displaying only those
//characters that are not lowercase vowels
for(ctr=0; buffer[ctr]!= ‘\0’; ctr++)
{
//If the character is a lowercase vowel, loop back
//without displaying it
//this if statement must be in one line if((buffer[ctr]==’a’)||(buffer[ctr]==’e’)||
(buffer[ctr]==’i’)||(buffer[ctr]==’o’)||(buffer[ctr]==’u’))

continue;

//If not a vowel, display it
putchar(buffer[ctr]);
}
printf(“\n”);

system(“pause”);
}

———————————————————————————–

//demonstrate the goto statement
#include
#include

void main()
{
int n;
start: ;
puts(“Enter a number between 0 and 10: “);
scanf(“%d”, &n);

if ((n < 0) || (n > 10))
goto start;

else if (n == 0)
goto location0;
else if (n == 1)
goto location1;
else
goto location2;

location0: ;
{
puts(“You entered 0.”);
}
goto end;

location1: ;
{
puts(“You entered 1.”);
}
goto end;
location2: ;
{
puts(“You entered something between 2 and 10.”);
}
end: ;
system(“pause”);
}

———————————————————————————-

#include
#include

//function prototypes…
void cleanup1(void);
void cleanup2(void);

void main()
{
atexit(cleanup2);
atexit(cleanup1);
//end of main
}

void cleanup1(void)
{
//dummy cleanup…..
printf(“\nThis is the demonstration…\n”);
printf(“cleanup….\n”);
printf(“You computer is SHUTTING DOWN!!!”);
getchar();
}

void cleanup2(void)
{
//another dummy cleanup…
printf(“\nAnother cleanup…”);
printf(“\nWINDOWS 20000 is closing the entire program…”);
printf(“\nPlease WAIT…”);
printf(“\nSHUTTING DOWN IN PROGRESS…\n”);
getchar();
}

———————————————————————————–

//Demonstrate the exit() and atexit() functions
#include
#include
#include
#define DELAY 1500000

//function prototypes
void cleanup(void);
void delay(void);

void main()
{
int reply;

//register the function to be called at exit
atexit(cleanup);
puts(“Enter 1 to exit, any other to continue.”);
scanf(“%d”, &reply);

if(reply == 1)
exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);

//pretend to do some work
for(reply = 0; reply < 5; reply++)
{
puts(“WORKING…”);
delay();
}
}//end of main

//function definition…
void cleanup(void)
{
puts(“\nPreparing for exit”);
delay();
}

//function definition
void delay(void)
{
long x;
for(x = 0; x < DELAY; x++)
;
system(“pause”);
}

———————————————————————————–

//Demonstrates the system() function
#include
#include

void main()
{
//Declare a buffer to hold input
char input[40];

while (1)
{
//get the user command
puts(“\nInput the desired DOS command, blank to exit”);
gets(input);

//Exit if a blank line was entered
if(input[0] == ‘\0’)
exit(0);

//execute the command
system(input);
}
}

———————————————————————————-

//program showing function definition, declaration, call and
//the use of the return statement
#include
#include

int main()
{

float y1, y2, avgy;
//A prototype for the function avg()
//that main() is going to call
float avg(float, float);

y1=5.0;
y2=7.0;

//calling the function avg() i.e. control passes
//to avg() and the return value is assigned to avgy
avgy = avg(y1, y2);

cout<<“\ny1 = “< cout<<“\nThe average is= “<
system(“pause”);
return 0;
}

//Definition of the function avg(), avg() is
//of type float main() calls this function
float avg(float x1, float x2)
{
//avgx is a local variable
float avgx;

//Computes average and stores it in avgx.
avgx = (x1+x2)/2;

//returns the value in avgx to main() and
//control reverts to main().
return avgx;
}

————————————————————————————-

//program showing a function of type void
//It has return statement
#include
#include

int main()
{
float y1, y2, avgy;

//function prototype…
//display-avg() is declared to be of type void
void display_avg(float);

y1 = 5.0;
y2 = 7.0;

cout<<“\ny1 = “< avgy = (y1 + y2)/2; //compute average
display_avg(avgy); //call function display_avg()
cout<
system(“pause”);
return 0; //return the value 0 to the environment
}

//display_avg() is of type void
void display_avg(float avgx)
{
cout<<“\nThe average is = “< return;
//No value is returned to main()
//and control reverts to main().
//or just excludes the return word…
}

————————————————————————————-

//A pyramid of $ using nested loops
#include
#include
#define VIEW ‘$’
//replace any occurrences of VIEW with character $

int main()
{
int i, j;

cout<<“Let have money pyramid!\n”<
//first for loop, set the rows…
for(i=1; i<=10; i++)
{
//second for loop, set the space…
for(j=1; j<=10-i; j++)
cout<<” “;
//third for loop, print the $ characters…
for(j=1; j<=2*i-1; j++)
//print character…
cout< //go to new line…
cout<<“\n”;
}

system(“pause”);
return 0;
}

————————————————————————————-

//using break statement in a for structure
#include

int main()
{
int x;

for(x = 1; x <= 10; x++)
{
//break loop only if x == 5
if (x == 5)
break;
printf(“%d “, x);
}
printf(“\nBroke out of loop at x == %d\n”, x);
getchar();
return 0;
}

————————————————————————————-

//using the continue statement in a for structure
#include
#include

int main()
{
int x;

for(x = 1; x <= 10; x++)
{
//skip remaining code in loop only if x == 5
if(x == 5)
continue;
printf(“%d “, x);
}
printf(“\nUsed continue to skip printing the value 5\n”);

system(“pause”);
return 0;
}

————————————————————————————

//using for statement to calculate compound interest
#include
#include
#include //for pow() function

int main()
{
int year;
double amount, principal = 1000.0, rate = 0.05;

printf(“%4s!s\n”, “Year”, “Amount on deposit”);

for(year = 1; year <= 10; year++)
{
amount = principal * pow(1.0 + rate, year);
printf(“M!.2f\n”, year, amount);
}

system(“pause”);
return 0;
}

————————————————————————————-

//Counting letter grades using while, switch
//and multiple case
#include
#include

int main()
{
int grade;
int aCount=0,bCount=0,cCount=0,dCount=0,eCount=0,fCount = 0;

printf(“Enter the letter grades. \n”);
printf(“Enter the EOF character, ctrl-c or\n”);
printf(“ctrl-z, etc to end input.\n”);

while((grade = getchar()) != EOF)
{
//switch nested in while
switch(grade)
{
//grade was uppercase A or lowercase a
case ‘A’: case ‘a’:
++aCount;
break;
//grade was uppercase B or lowercase b
case ‘B’: case ‘b’:
++bCount;
break;
//grade was uppercase C or lowercase c
case ‘C’: case ‘c’:
++cCount;
break;
//grade was uppercase D or lowercase d
case ‘D’: case ‘d’:
++dCount;
break;
//grade was uppercase E or lowercase e
case ‘E’: case ‘e’:
++eCount;
break;
//grade was uppercase F or lowercase f
case ‘F’: case ‘f’:
++fCount;
break;
//ignore these input
case ‘\n’: case ‘ ‘:
break;
//catch all other characters
default:
{printf(“Incorrect letter grade entered.\n”);
printf(“Enter a new grade.\n”);}
break;
}
}
//Do the counting…
printf(“\nTotals for each letter grade are:\n”);
printf(“\A: %d\n”, aCount);
printf(“\B: %d\n”, bCount);
printf(“\C: %d\n”, cCount);
printf(“\D: %d\n”, dCount);
printf(“\E: %d\n”, eCount);
printf(“\F: %d\n”, fCount);

system(“pause”);
return 0;
}

———————————————-VC++/VC++ .Net————————————————–

//using for statement to calculate compound interest
#include
//for pow() function
#include

int main()
{
int year;
double amount, principal = 1000.0, rate = 0.05;

printf(“%4s!s\n”, “Year”, “Amount on deposit”);
for(year = 1; year <= 10; year++)
{
amount = principal * pow(1.0 + rate, year);
printf(“M!.2f\n”, year, amount);
}
return 0;
}

——————————————–GCC on fedora—————————————————-

#include

int main()
{
char job_title;
int years_served, no_of_pub;

printf(” —Enter data—\n”);
printf(“Your current job (Tutor-T, Lecturer-L or Assoc. Prof-A): “);
scanf(“%s”, &job_title);
printf(“Years served: “);
scanf(“%d”, &years_served);
printf(“No of publication: “);
scanf(“%d”, &no_of_pub);

if(job_title == ‘A’)
if(years_served > 5)
if(no_of_pub > 7)
printf(“\nCan be promoted to Professor\n”);
else
printf(“\nMore publications required lol! \n”);
else
printf(“\nMore service required lol\n”);
else
printf(“\nMust become Associate Professor first\n”);
return 0;
}

——————————————————————————————-

/*—–forloop.c———–*/
/*—–First triangle——-*/
#include

int main()
{
int i, j, k, l;

printf(“Triangle lol!\n”);

/*first for loop, set the rows…*/
for(i=15; i>=0; i–)
{
/*second for loop, set the space…*/
for(j=15; j>=1+i; j–)
printf(” “);
/*third for loop, print the characters…*/
for(j=1; j<=2*i+1; j++)
/*print the character…*/
printf(“H”);
/*go to new line…*/
printf(“\n”);
}

/*Another inverse triangle*/
for(k=1; k <= 16; k++)
{
for(l=1; l<=16-k; l++)
printf(” “);
for(l=1; l<=2*k-1; l++)
printf(“T”);
printf(“\n”);
}
return 0;
}

———————————————————————————————

/*———–whilelol.c—————*/
/*Demonstrates a simple while statement*/
#include

int main()
{
int calculate, sum = 0;

/*print the numbers 1 through 12*/
/*set the initial value…*/
calculate = 1;

/*set the while condition…*/
while(calculate <= 10)
{
/*display…*/
printf(“%d –>Sum = %d\n”, calculate, sum);
sum = sum + calculate;
/*increment by 1…repeats*/
calculate++;
}
printf(“\n”);
return 0;
}

———————————————————————————————–

/*—– systemcall.c ——-*/
/*Demonstrate the system() function*/
#include
#include

int main()
{
//Declare a buffer to hold input
char input[40];

while (1)
{
//get the user command
puts(“\nInput the command, blank to exit”);
gets(input);
//Exit if a blank line was entered
if(input[0] == ‘\0’)
exit(0);
//execute the command

system(input);
}
return 0;
}

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