I. what is Diabetes:
Diabetes is a lifelong disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood.
II. Types of Diabetes:
There are three major types of diabetes:
1. Gestational Diabetes
2. Type 1 Diabetes
3. Type 2 Diabetes
1. Gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (diabetes) that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy.
Pregnancy hormones can block insulin from doing its job. When this happens, glucose levels may increase in a pregnant woman’s blood.
You are at greater risk for gestational diabetes if you:
• Are older than 25 when you are pregnant
• Have a family history of diabetes
• Gave birth to a baby that weighed more than 9 pounds or had a birth defect
• Have sugar (glucose) in your urine when you see your doctor for a regular prenatal visit
• Have high blood pressure
• Have too much amniotic fluid
• Have had an unexplained miscarriage or stillbirth
• Were overweight before your pregnancy
Gestational diabetes symptoms
Generally, gestational diabetes might not cause any symptoms, but the pregnant woman may experience a large gain of weight, extreme hunger and thirst, excessive urination or recurrent vaginal infections.
The list of possible symptoms includes:
• Frequent urination
• Extreme hunger
• Excessive thirst
• Unusual weight loss
• Increased fatigue
• Blurry vision
When a woman is experiencing any of these symptoms, she should seek medical attention early.
Gestational diabetes is detected through a glucose tolerance test, which is taken from week 24 thru week 28 of the pregnancy. But if the woman is considered at risk, the doctor may test as early as 13 weeks.
Treatment of Gestational diabetes
- Maintain a healthy pregnancy weight
- Monitor glucose levels
- Daily insulin injections
2. Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin to properly control blood sugar levels.
This diabetes used to be called juvenile or insulin-dependent diabetes. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults.
Those with type 1 diabetes should be checked regularly for signs of complications. Over a period of several years, complications can result from sustained high levels of glucose in the blood. These complications can affect:
Eyes, Nerves, Kidneys, Cardiovascular system
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes:
Increased thirst and frequent urination, Extreme hunger, Weight loss, Fatigue, Blurred vision,
Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes must be treated with insulin. This involves injecting insulin under the skin—in the fat—for it to get absorbed into the bloodstream where it can then access all the cells of the body that require it. Insulin cannot be taken as a pill because the juices in the stomach would destroy the insulin before it could work. Scientists are looking for new ways to give insulin. Some new insulin pumps are being developed and tested.
3. Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease marked by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. When you have type 2 diabetes, the body does not respond correctly to insulin. This is called insulin resistance.
Family history and genetics play a large role in type 2 diabetes. Low activity level, poor diet, and excess body weight (especially around the waist) significantly increase your risk for type 2 diabetes.
Other risk factors include:
• Age greater than 45 years
• HDL cholesterol of less than 35 mg/dL or triglyceride level of greater than 250 mg/dL
• High blood pressure
• History of gestational diabetes
• Polycystic ovarian syndrome
• Previously identified impaired glucose tolerance by your doctor
• Race/ethnicity (African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans all have high rates of diabetes)
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:
• Increased thirst
• Increased urination
• Increased hunger
• Loss of stamina
• Fatigue or muscle weakness
• Sudden increase or decrease in weight
• Blurred vision
• Poor healing of wounds
• Erectile dysfunction
• Gum problems
• For women, vaginal and skin yeast infections are frequent
Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes
• Healthy and balanced diet
• Regular exercising
• Keeping blood sugar level in control
• Maintaining a record of blood sugar levels
• Avoidance of smoking
• Less consumption of alcohol
• Taking the prescribed medication regularly
• Maintaining weight and fitness
Home remedies for Diabetes
1. Boil 15 fresh Mango leaves in 1 glass of water. Leave overnight. Filter this water and drink first thing in the morning.
2. Drink a watery juice of a small Bitter Gourd (remove seeds) every morning.
3. Add 3-table spoon of cinnamon to 1 litre of boiling water. Simmer for 20 minutes in a low flame, and then strain the mixture. Drink this mixture daily to cure diabetes.
4. Eat tender curry leaves (fresh) twice a day to reduce sugar.
5. Take the juice of crushed fish-berry (amruth) soaked in water for a day first thing in the morning.
6. Do regular exercises and yoga.
7. Prepare a mixture by adding equal quantities of turmeric powder and dried gooseberry powder with honey or drink equal quantities of gooseberry juice and fresh turmeric juice in an empty stomach daily.
8. Eat garlic regularly as it regulates sugar level.
• 70 – 130 mg/dL for adults
• 100 – 180 mg/dL for children under age 6
• 90 – 180 mg/dL for children 6 – 12 years old
• 90 – 130 mg/dL for children 13-19 years old
• Less than 180 mg/dL for adults
• 110 – 200 mg/dL for children under age 6
• 100 – 180 mg/dL for children 6 – 12 years old
• 90 – 150 mg/dL for children 13 – 19 years old
The American Diabetes Association recommends keeping blood sugar levels in a range that is based on your age. Discuss these goals with your physician and diabetes educator.