Geography and environment
China’s size, as well as regional differences in terms of height and distance to the ocean, creating large variations in its climate and nature. The western part of the country consists mainly of mountains and arid areas, while land to the east is covered by fertile plains.
Monsoon winds have a major impact on the country’s climate. In winter, dominates the polar winds, while warm, tropical breeze coming into the country during the summer. Extraction of oil and coal production has led to a comprehensive air pollution. Several Chinese cities are ranked among the world’s most polluted. Furthermore, emissions from industry led to a shortage of clean water.
Deforestation and soil erosion are some of the reasons why China since 1949 has lost a fifth of the country’s arable land. In China, going development of the largest dam in the world, Three Gorges Dam. The development is controversial partly because the fish population in the river has gone down, and that 1.2 million people have been forcibly moved.
For centuries, China was one of the most advanced civilizations in the world.The great inventions like the compass, gunpowder, paper and the art comes from China. The country has been ruled by several dynasties, and was a long time under Mongol rule. In 1912, the Chinese Republic established, while China’s last imperial dynasty was ended. The nationalist party “Guomindang” and the communist party fought for supremacy for years, but none of them had full control of the country. In 1937 war broke out between China and Japan. The disagreements between the two parties were added to the side to beat Japan.When China won the war in 1945, broke immediately into a civil war that killed 12 million people their lives. The Communists, with Mao Zedong at the helm, won and established People’s Republic of China in 1949. Supporters of the nationalist party withdrew and settled on the island of Taiwan, where they established the Republic of China. Mao ruled with an iron hand and announced, among other things, in 1966, “The great proletarian cultural revolution”. The goal was, according to Mao, to destroy all the old customs and practices in the Chinese society and replace them with communist ideology. Mao’s death in 1976 led to a showdown with the more radical elements of communism.
Society and politics
China is a unity government People Republic of Communist Party as the only permitted political party. Students who in 1989 demonstrated on Tiananmen Square for freedom and democracy, were met with tanks and thousands of people were killed. Respect for human rights is small, and the country’s opposition silenced. Corruption is regarded as a major problem, and every year hundreds of people punished with death for economic crimes. The authorities continue to lead a strict population policies and permits are usually only families to one child. Chinese authorities are of the West, particularly criticized for their occupation of Tibet, and their claim that Taiwan should join the mainland China as a province.
Economy and Trade
The economic policy in China since Mao’s death gradually become more liberalized. The government has also opened up for foreign investment and more than 500 000 foreign companies have established themselves in the country. China is said to have the world’s fastest growing economy, and GDP has increased considerably since the 80s. China was in 2001 a member of the WTO (World Trade Organisation).
The country is struggling, however, with high unemployment in rural areas. This has resulted in many move to the cities.About three-quarters of China’s population is still employed in agriculture.China is rich in natural resources such as coal, oil and iron ore. The main exports consist of textiles, electronic products, oil and oil products, chemicals and light industrial goods and weapons. In recent years, the service industry has grown dramatically.