Hypertension is arterial disease in which chronic high blood pressure is the primary symptom and abnormally elevated blood pressure.
Hypertension is not just elevated blood pressure, but also a major risk factor of organ dysfunction such as brain, kidney, and heart. The higher the blood pressure, the risk of damage to the organs of the body getting jumped.
Every year, 7 million people worldwide died from hypertension. Global health problems associated hypertensive felt worried and causing high health costs. In 2000, nearly 1 billion people worldwide suffer from hypertension. This amount is expected to soar to 1.5 billion in 2025.
Two-thirds of hypertensive patients living in poor and developing countries. Prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia, 31.7 per cent. That is, nearly 1 in 3 people aged 18 and above suffer hypertension.
Some cases of very high blood pressure are due to specific causes that may be surgically remediable. Most hypertension, however, results from the combination of a genetic predisposition and an environmental factor such as excessive sodium intake, sedentary habits, and stress.
Most people with hypertension do not feel any complaints. This makes a lot of people ignore the spike in blood pressure.
Blood pressure is always listed with two numbers, that is 120/80. Score 120 is the systolic pressure, is the maximum pressure when the heart contracts the blood vessels. Score 80 is the diastolic pressure, the minimum blood pressure after the heart contracts. Blood pressure was measured with 1 mm Hg.
Currently, the consensus of the experts mentioned hypertension, blood pressure is considered normal if it is in the range below 120/80 mmHg. You are considered to suffer from hypertension when blood pressure 140/90 mmHg and above.
The higher the blood pressure, the higher the risk. Vigilance will trigger the arrival of hypertension experts to make classification pre-hypertension, is systolic blood pressure of 120-139 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure on the value of 80-90 mmHg.
Hypertension potentially causing various heart problems, such as coronary heart disease, heart failure, heart rhythm disturbances up to. The results of the World Health Organization (WHO) shows, nearly half of cases of heart attack triggered by high blood pressure.
Blood pressure continues to rise in the long run will disrupt the function of endothelial cells lining the blood vessel wall. Endothelial dysfunction, initiate the process of plaque formation (crust) that may narrow the coronary arteries, the vessels that became the path of nutrients and energy for the heart. As a result, the supply of substances essential for life disrupted heart cells. In certain circumstances, elevated blood pressure can crack the coronary plaque, so that blood flow is blocked and cause heart attacks.
People with high blood pressure had twice the risk of coronary heart disease. Risk of heart disease more than doubled if the patient also suffered from high blood pressure diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking.
Not only the heart coronary arteries affected by hypertension, but also the heart muscle. High blood pressure that continues to burden the heart left ventricle muscle that serves as the main pump blood. Left ventricle muscle will thicken as compensation to overcome the burden of blood pressure. When elevated pressure is still not resolved, the heart pumping function decreases. A weak heart function due to hypertension is a condition that can not be restored. The drugs can only prevent the progression of cardiac function decline it.
Hypertension can also cause heart rhythm disturbances (arrhythmias). The most common is atrial fibrillation, which is a type of heart rhythm that makes the porch irregular heart tremble. These rhythm disturbances can lead to blood clots in the heart chambers. If the blood clots removed, can clog the blood vessels of the brain and cause strokes.
Treatment of hypertension is usually based on a variety of conditions that accompany hypertension because hypertension is usually accompanied by other risk factors, such as hypercholesterolemia and diabetes.
In the coming era, will develop treatment of hypertension called pharmacogenetic . In this method, drugs are given will be tailored to one’s response genes. However, the drug will be ineffective if not accompanied by a healthy lifestyle, which is eating low fat, low salt, high fiber, exercise regularly, and quit smoking.