Diamond is a stable allotrope of carbon. Allotropy is chemically the ability of an element to exist in more than one form in the same physical state. The second of the same element allotrope is graphite. The different characteristics in the two allotropes is in their chemical bonds, where both are covalently bound, but different atomic combinations. In diamond, each carbon atom is covalently bonded to 4 carbon atoms, therefore, the use of all the delocalized electrons in carbon. Diamond commercial properties such as electrical conductivity are poor as a result of this chemical.
Chemical facts – the physical properties of diamond
Physically, the diamond is a solid, bright, crystalline in nature. It is colorless and transparent. One of the best known qualities of diamond is its hardness. Mineral experts have argued that it is the hardest mineral in existence. The hardness of diamond is attributed to its inherent chemical composition (Thomas, 1991). Chemically, coal, with an electronic configuration of 2, 4 require four electrons in its outer energy level to achieve stability. In diamond, this is achieved through covalent bonds in which each atom is covalently combines with 4 others. This implies that the four outer electrons are used effectively in the link. The structure resulting from this combination is an octahedral structure that extends in all directions. Covalent bonds are very strong so it is very difficult to break. The melting point is quite high, estimated at 37000c.
Another common feature is their poor electrical conductivity. This comes as a result of the lack of delocalized electrons in the bonded structure. Recent developments have seen diamond is used as insulation in their first doped with boron, an element that creates gaps in the octahedral structure making it possible to carry out. The boron impurity makes the diamond appears blue. The physical appearance of the diamond is mostly clear and colorless (Thomas, 1991). This is because it has a band gap of about 5.5eV. This chemically band gap corresponds to a wavelength of ultraviolet radiation of approximately 225 nm. Other colors associated with diamond, originates mainly from impurities and defects in the network. Using the technology of impurities are introduced into the diamond in a process known as chemical growth on the diamond. The dominant impurity in diamond is nitrogen that makes the diamond appear yellow or brown. boron impurities that appear in gray-blue diamond. Other colors such as red and green is achieved through plastic deformation is physical deformation / disorganization of diamond crystal.
The primary identification method is based on the hardness and high thermal conductivity (Boser, 2008). The material also has high thermal conductivity, although this can not be relied on for other materials also exhibit a similar r property. On the Mohs scale, diamond quartz is the ability to cut glass so the ability to cut glass is not conclusive proof. Another test is the ability of diamonds to scratch other diamonds, although this usually results in the destruction of both pieces (Thomas, 1991). In the laboratory, special techniques such as spectroscopy, luminescence and microscopy normally apply. Luminescence, diamond is normally illuminated using shortwave ultraviolet radiation. Special machines are also used in identification. see Diamond and Diamond machines are specially developed to prove the authenticity of the diamond market.
Natural Diamond Training
Naturally, the diamond is crystallized from fluids containing high carbon content. This crystallization is performed with industrial achieved considerable amounts of heat and pressure. Heat required is approximately 20,000 and 50,000 F pa of pressure. This kind of pressure and temperatures found only occur on the surfaces of depth below sea level. It is the belief of most scientists that diamonds are formed deep and below 150 km below the surface of the Earth (Hesse, 2007). Diamond quantities sufficient to meet industrial and commercial purposes are geologically rich in places scattered in some parts of the continent on Earth. Most of the continents are formed consisting cratons are the main content of the crust formed about more than 2 million years. Scientific dating has established that some diamonds may have formed more than 3 million years. The current diamond deposits are estimated to come from volcanic rocks that are believed to have been placed in strategic locations across the massive volcanic activity (Hesse, 2007). Deposit of diamonds available today are the results of the alluvial deposits that have led to weathering and water movement. Strong winds and movement of glaciers in the past have contributed to the transport of diamonds across different geographic locations on Earth. tectonic movements have been credited with the movement of diamonds from deposits deep underground. These types of deposits have been found in the cords, such as Kazakhstan. Diamonds found in this way are generally of poor quality due to intensive processes that have been passed by (Thomas, 1991). Meteorites have also been accredited for the formation of small deposits of diamonds. The quality of these diamonds is generally of lower density. Some diamonds are estimated extra-shaped landforms. There is a possibility that the majority of diamonds in Africa and parts of North America were formed in these processes.
For industrial and synthetic diamond goes through several processes. natural diamond is usually difficult. Because of its hardness, a large amount of thermal energy is needed for court. The cutting process includes laser cutting, saw cutting and polishing the final process. When cutting, the intention is to improve the quality of the diamonds without losing too much. About half of the amount of diamonds is usually lost during cutting. The first step is the examination of the stone t identify areas of weakness glass (Thomas, 1991). The court determines the aircraft can easily be cut by sawing and cleavage. Today cutters typically use the laser in the achievement of division rather than traditional division. The final process is to polish the stone carving. The polished stone is considered when all facets are polished.
When a diamond is used in jewelry, property buyers should bear in mind are clarity, color, carat weight and cut (Boser, 2008). Diamonds that contains colors of brown and yellow stained are considered under special value as colored stones with hues of green and orange, blue and red are considerably more rare and therefore valuable. Clarity is determined by the presence of dirt or not. The absence of spots ensures that the cut of diamond is very clear. Carat weight is an attribute to the size of the diamond. The commonly used metric carat diamond measuring approximately 0.2. Cut quality reflects the quality of the processes of division and polished.
Almost 80% of diamond usually contains impurities that color decreases as necessary in the manufacture of jewelry. Most is used for manufacturing. Since it is very hard metal used in the manufacture of drill bits robust devices for cutting and making surfaces that can withstand strong shocks (Thomas, 1991). Scientifically, it is used in the detection of the photo and radiation in experiments with high pressures and temperatures.