Please, read Wikipedia article on Pakistan.The article mentions: “It has a 1,046-kilometre (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. The region forming modern Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures including the neolithicMehrgarh and the bronze eraIndus Valley Civilisation. Pakistan is a federalparliamentaryrepublic consisting of four provinces and four federal territories. Pakistan has the seventh largest standing armed force and is the only Muslim-majority nation to possess nuclear weapons. The name Pakistan means Land of (the) Pure in Urdu and Persian. Waves of conquerors and migrants from the west—including Harappan, Indo-Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Sakas, Parthians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Afghans, Arabs, Turks and Mughals—settled in the region throughout the centuries, influencing the locals and being absorbed among them. However, in the medieval period, while the eastern provinces of Punjab and Sindh grew aligned with Indo-Islamic civilisation, the western areas became culturally allied with the Iranian civilisation of Afghanistan and Iran. Modern day Pakistan was at the heart of the Indus Valley Civilisation; that collapsed in the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE and was followed by the Vedic Civilisation, which also extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plains. The Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab from 184 BCE, and reached its greatest extent under Menander, establishing the Greco-Buddhist period with advances in trade and culture. In 712 CE, the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab.
Standing Buddha, Gandhara, Pakistan, 1st century AD
The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early eighteenth century provided opportunities for the Afghans, Balochis and Sikhs to exercise control over large areas until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia.
The Indus Priest/King wearing a Sindhi Ajruk, ca. 2500 BC.
The All India Muslim League rose to popularity in the late 1930s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of Muslims in politics.
The modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947 (27 Ramadan 1366 in the Islamic Calendar), carved out of the two Muslim-majority wings in the eastern and northwestern regions of British India and comprising the provinces of Balochistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab and Sindh.
Disputes arose over several princely states including in the Muslim-majority Jammu and Kashmir, whose Hindu ruler had acceded to India following an invasion by Pashtun tribal militias, leading to the First Kashmir War in 1948.
From 1947 to 1956, Pakistan was a Dominion of Pakistan in the Commonwealth of Nations. Civilian rule resumed in Pakistan from 1972 to 1977 under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, until he was deposed and later sentenced to death in 1979 by General Zia-ul-Haq, who became the country’s third military president.
Mass Protest Against US drone strike Led by Imran Khan, anti-Americanism is increasing in Pakistan leading to high support to smaller political parties like Tehreek-e-Insaaf.
The bicameral legislature comprises a 100-member Senate and a 342-member National Assembly. The Pakistani military has played an influential role in mainstream politics throughout Pakistan’s history, with military presidents ruling from 1958–71, 1977–88 and from 1999–2008.
Prime Minister of Pakistan, Yousaf Raza Gillani.
Asif Ali Zardari is the current President of Pakistan, he has faced heavy public opposition and corruption allegations.
Pakistan is a federation of four provinces, a capital territory and a group of federally administered tribal areas.
Pakistan Administrative Units — Tier 1
The armed forces of Pakistan are the seventh-largest in the world.
Pakistani Navy during a Drill.
The JF-17 Thunder is built in Pakistan in cooperation with China.
A nuclear capable Babur cruise missile with a theoretical range of 1000km.
In the past, Pakistani personnel have volunteered to serve alongside Arab forces in conflicts with Israel.
Since 2004, Pakistani armed forces are engaged in fighting against Pakistani Taliban groups.
The 62-kilometre-long Baltoro Glacier, in northern Pakistan, is one of the longest glaciers outside the polar regions.
Pakistan covers an area of 796,095 km2 (307,374 sq mi), approximately equaling the combined land areas of France and the United Kingdom.
Geologically, Pakistan overlaps with the Indian tectonic plate in its Sindh and Punjab provinces, while Balochistan and most of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa lie within the Eurasian plate which mainly comprises the Iranian plateau.
The geography of Pakistan is a blend of landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakoram range in the north.