original quark-gluon soup,
When big bang occurred about 14 billion years ago the matter and energy, at hundreds of millions of degrees of temperature, were all mixed together. There was perhaps no distinguishing between particles of matter and carriers of energyand between matter and antimatter.
Wel describe below the scenario in the first trillionth,trillionth,trillionth part of first second after the big bang occured.
The four fundamental energies appeared as if out of nothing in that billion degree hot mass(a jumble of matter and energy). The four energies showed their power only in stages as further transformations occurred in the billions degree hot primordial matter. that created the universe.
The four forces are
1)the terrible unimaginably strong forces that can create protons and neutrons and later create extremely strong atomic nuclei (gluing the protons and neutrons) which remain intact and last right up to next Big Bang
2)the slightly less powerful forces that can shoot out alpha and beta particles from nuclei and can start thermonuclear reactions in cores of stars and galaxies (still to be formed) to create nuclei of all chemical elements
3)the all pervading electrical and magnetic forces that create attractions and repulsions between particles and help create stable chemical elements after primordial plasma matter cools by making electrons circle around positive nuclei
4) the gravitational force though far weaker than all the other forces which ,by the process of implosion of trillions upon trillions of premordial cosmic dust ,creates stars and galaxies in their billions and billions long after the Big Bang and keeps them circling after all this annihilating fury of creation subsided a little.
Now we will return to the first second after the big bang. Only a trillionth trillionth part of first second after the big bang is elapsed. There were then particles called quarks ,antiquarks and gluons (all in size a little less than size of protons ad neutrons which are still to be created out of these particles). There were also almost weightless fundamental uncharged particles called neutrinos from which light electrons i.e. ordinary electrons and heavy electrons would form. All particles were in their trillions,trillions,trillions like drops of water in oceans. These tiny particles formed a premordial soup of matter and energy . They were bubbling and popping up in the multimillion degree white hot super plasma soup.
Such was the original quark-gluon soup burning at hundreds of millions of degrees.In a billionth billionth billionth part of first second after the big bang! Now the quarks and antiquarks the basic material particles for all creation joined and tied together forever , in little groups of of two or three quarks and antiquarks of different varieties, glued up by gluons and thus were transformed as protons and neutrons . Will the protons and neutrons live till the bigger next Big Bang perhaps many untold billions of years later? The half life of proton is “10 raised to power 32” years. This means they are permanent and stable till ends of time. When neutrons stay inside atomic nucleus they too becomeas permanent as protons. The mass of gluons is nearly a hundred times more than the total mass of quarks. Thus 99% of mass of a proton or neutron is made of gluon weight! Gluon is a form of crystallized energy.
In the quark- gluon soup the pions(the pi-mesons) were also formed . this was perhaps a little later after creation of protons and neutrons from quarks and gluons.. They too are among the strongest exchange particles(bonding particles)known to universe The protons were positive and repelled each other violently. The protons and neutrons could be tied together only by most powerful force of pions(pi-mesons).The pions provide a most powerful force like an unbreakable glue as they are exchanged between protons and neutrons billions of times each second. The pi-mesons help create the atomic nuclei which are like sealed rock forts and last till ends of time. Please note that only the mesons, protons and neutrons were there existing seperately in the hot soup which is hundreds of millions of degrees hot.The atomic nuclei ( mostly hydrogen and helium nuclei) have not yet started forming . They would start forming sooner or later in the next trillionth of second! Here the pi-mesons play the central role and keep together the protons and neutrons inside nucleus till ends of time .
Here we should describe a little the quickly changing scenario on the stage breiefly . In the first super plasma soups there was both matter and antimatter. In the first trillionth trillionth second quarks and antiqurks(said to be of twelve categories) were formed . Also the required glue particles called Gluons were formed from the first primordial energy- matter sup. The Gluons were the “energy particles” that bound together peranantly the different varieties of quarks and helped in creation of protons and antiprotons and neutrons and antineutrons .
In addition another type of fundamental partcles called “Leptons” which had almost no weight were also formed . The neutrinos and antineutrinos (electron size weightless particles) and the electrons and their antiparticles are all Leptons and are pure fundamental particles just like the quarks.
Now a terrible scene was enacted in thatpremoedial universe. All particles and antiparticles start annihilating each other as they come into contact. The primordial universe at billions degrees temperature was shaking end to end every fraction of second with these mutual matter-antimatter annihilations.