GPRS Stands for (General Packet Radio Service) represents an evolution of the GSM standard, allowing data transmission in packet mode and providing higher throughputs as compared with the circuit-switched mode. This evolution is usually presented under the designation of 2.5G to point out that it is a transition technology between 2G and 3G.
The GPRS network architecture reuses the GSM network nodes such as MSC/VLR, HLR, and BSS. New network nodes have been introduced for the transport of packet data. These nodes are the gateway GPRS support nodes (GGSN) and serving GPRS support nodes (SGSN). The sub network formed by the SGSNs and the GGSNs is called the GPRS core network. In order to reuse the GSM nodes, new interfaces have been defined between the GSM network nodes and the different elements of the GPRS core network.
GPRS network has the following interfaces
1. SGSN – The SGSN is the node that is serving the MS; it is responsible for GMM. It delivers packets to the MSs and communicates with the HLR to obtain the GPRS subscriber profile. It manages the registration of the new mobile subscribers in order to keep a record of their LA for routing purposes. The SGSN can be connected to one or several BSSs.
2. GGSN – The GGSN provides inter working with external packet data networks (PDNs). It may be linked to one or several data networks. It is connected with SGSNs via an IP-based GPRS backbone network. The GGSN is a router that forwards incoming packets from the external PDN to the SGSN of the addressed MS. It also forwards outgoing packets to the external PDN. The PDN is the external fixed data network to which is connected the GPRS network. An example of a PDN is the Internet network.
3. HLR – The HLR is a database that contains, among other things, packet domain subscription data and routing information.
4. Mobile switching center/visitor location registers (MSC/VLR) – The MSC coordinates the setting up of calls to and from GSM users and manages GSM mobility. The MSC is not directly involved in the GPRS network. It forwards circuit-switched paging for the GPRS-attached MSs to the SGSN when the Gs interface is present.
5. BSS – The BSS ensures the radio connection between the mobile and the network. It is responsible for radio access management. The BSS is composed of two elements: the BTS and the BSC. The BTS integrates all the radio transmission and radio reception boards. The BSC is responsible for the management of the radio channels. The BSC has switching capabilities that are used for circuit-switched calls and can also be used for GPRS traffic.
6. EIR – The EIR is a database that contains terminal identities.
One of the main GPRS characteristics is that a physical connection is established in uplink only when the MS needs to send continuous data to the network and in downlink only when the network needs to send continuous data to the MS. This physical connection is released in one direction as soon as the sending entity has no more data to send. Different allocation schemes for radio resource (RR) management have been defined in order to multiplex several MSs on the same physical channel.
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7. Broadband Satellite Internet Takes Broadband to a New Level
In a satellite Internet connection the upstream (outgoing) and the downstream (incoming) data are sent and received from a computer via satellite. The signals are sent to the satellite with the help of a satellite dish antenna and a transceiver that operates in the microwave portion of the radio spectrum. As the nature of the broadband satellite Internet connection offers high speed it is considered really a good option for Web browsing and for downloading of files.
Satellite Internet providers can get a satellite Internet connection installed even in remote areas where even the most basic utilities such as electricity is lacking. In such a situation if there is a generator or battery for power supply to run a computer system you can think about getting a satellite Internet connection. Thus, getting a broadband satellite Internet connection is the best choice as location and hi-fi infrastructure is not an issue here. The dish provided by the satellite Internet providers is designed to pick up the signal from practically any where.
Pros and cons of satellite Internet connection
Before you seriously think of getting a satellite broadband Internet connection, you must be aware of the pros and cons associated with the usage of broadband satellite Internet. The biggest advantage is undoubtedly the convenience related to the use of this fast growing technology. Secondly it always promises fast and reliable connection speeds without any location barrier.
And speaking of cons the integrity of your satellite Internet connection largely depends on the weather condition. Rain, moisture, strong winds, and other obstructive weather patterns determine how well the transmitter provided by satellite Internet providers communicates with the Internet satellite service. But this problem can be resolved easily with the help of a signal amplifier or signal locator. With the help of this additional hardware connection can be made stronger and more resistant to disturbance with a signal amplifier.