Smoking is the major cause of mortality with bronchogenic carcinoma of the lung and is one of the factors causing death due to malignancies of larynx, oral cavity, oesophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, stomach and uterine cervix and coronary heart diseases.
Nicotine is the major substance present in the smoke that causes physical dependence. The additives do produce damage to the body – for examples, ammonia can result in a 100 fold increase in the ability of nicotine to enter into the smoke. Levulinic acid, added to cigarettes to mask the harsh taste of the nicotine, can increase the binding of nicotine to brain receptors, which increases the kick of nicotine. Smoke from the burning end of cigarette contains over 4000 chemicals and 40 carcinogens. It has long been known that tobacco smoke is carcinogenic or cancer causing.
The lungs of smokers collect an annual deposit of 1 to 1.5 pounds of the gooey black material. Invisible gas phase of cigarette smoke contains nitrogen, oxygen and toxic gases like carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide and nitrogen oxides. These gases are poisonous and in many cases interfere with the body’s ability to transport oxygen. Like many carcinogenic compounds, they can act as tumor promoters or tumor initiators by acting directly on the genetic make up of cells of the body leading to the development of cancer.
During smoking within the first 8 – 10 seconds, nicotine is absorbed through the lungs and quickly moved into the blood stream and circulated throughout the brain. Nicotine can also enter the blood stream through the mucous membranes that line the mouth (if tobacco is chewed) or nose (if snuff is used) and even through the skin. Our brain is made of billions of nerve cells. They communicate with each other by chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.
Nicotine is one of the most powerful nerve poisons and binds stereo-selectively to nicotinic receptors located in the brain, autonomic ganglia, the medulla, neuro-muscular junctions. Located throughout the brain, they play a critical role in cognitive processes and memory. The nicotine molecule is shaped like a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine which is involved in many functions including muscle movement, breathing, heart rate, learning and memory. Nicotine, because of the similar structure with acetylcholine when it gets into the brain, attaches itself to acetylcholine sites and produces toxic effect.
In high concentrations, nicotine is more deadly. In fact one drop of purified nicotine on the tongue will kill a person. It has been used as a pesticide for centuries. Recent research studies suggest that acute nicotine administration would result in increased dopamine release from the brain, producing perceptions of pleasure and happiness, increased energy and motivation, increased alertness, increased feeling of vigor during the early phase of smoking. However, notwithstanding these superficial effects, research shows that the relationship between smoking and memory loss is strongest in people who smoke more than 20 cigarettes a day. And this is not specific to socio economic status, gender and a range of associated medical conditions. Smoking may speed up age related exposure to high nicotinic smoke related to the Brain Wiring is nothing but neuro biochemistry that deals with complex interaction among genetic experience and bio chemistry of brain cells.
No is a unique molecule which plays a role in a number of beneficial and some of the harmful brain and body mechanisms, for example, synapse formation, drug tolerance and local regulation of cerebral blood flow, Parkinson’s diseases etc. It is also found that the people who smoke more cigarettes a day have poorer memories in middle age than non smokers. Some experts say that smoking is linked to memory problems because it contributes to narrowed arteries that restrict blood flow to the brain. One of the causes of memory decline in relation to the brain function could be the nerve cell death or decreased density of interconnected neuronal network due to loss of dendrites, the tiney filaments which connect one nerve cell to another. Abstinence from smoking is essential, not only to avoid this systemic effect but also to reduce the ill effects on the environment.
So, that’s all about smoking. Smoking is injurious to health.
An Article By : HappyChappy And SumoPunk.
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