Science is an organized body of knowledge supported by observation and experimentation, derived from the natural phenomena of the entire material universe. Biology had flourished a great deal in ancient India. Various systems of classifying animals and plants were developed, for example Jeevaj (Viviparous) animals that give birth to young one, Andaj (Oviparous) animals that lay eggs, etc. Cultivation of rice was first introduced in India. It is estimated that more than 1000 varieties of rice had been developed. With the invention of microscope a whole new world of minute animals and plants came to human knowledge. So there’s a need to divide biology into certain branches to due to its vastness of the syllabus it covers.
Biology is divided into several branches. This division can be made in at least three different ways.
A. Principal sub-divisions of Biology in terms of major kinds of organism.
– Botany – the study of plants.
– Zoology – the study of animals.
– Human Biology – The study of man as a living organism and his relationship with other living organisms the study of man and human society comes under Anthropology.
B. Principal sub-divisions of Biology in terms of special groups of organisms.
– Bacteriology – the study of bacteria.
– Virology – the study of viruses.
– Mycology – the study of fungi.
– Entomology – the study of insects.
– Ichthyology – the study of fishes.
– Herpetology – the study of lizards, snakes etc.
– Ornithology – the study of birds.
C. Principal sub-division of Biology in terms of approach on studying it.
– Anatomy – the study of gross structure of an organism as seen in dissection.
– Morphology – the study of form and structure of plants and animals. It includes essentially the understanding and interpretation of structure.
– Histology – the study of minute structure of time bits of the body as seen with the help of a compound microscope.
– Cytology – the study of structure and function of animal and plant cells.
– Physiology – the study of functions and activities of organisms and their parts.
– Embryology – the study of formation and development of embryo of plants and animals.
– Taxonomy – the science of naming, grouping and classifying plants and animals. It is called Systematic.
– Ecology – the study of the relationship of an organism to both its living and non living environment.
– Biogeography – the study of geographical distribution of plants and animals.
– Paleontology – the study of prehistoric forms of life through fossils of plants and animals.
– Genetics – the sciences of the transmission of body characteristics from parents to offspring.
– Parasitology – the study of parasites, the organisms that live on or inside other organisms and draw nourishment from the hosts.
– Pathology – the study of diseases of plants and animals.
– Immunology – the science that deals with the phenomena and causes of immunity (resistance to or defend against diseases)
– Eugenics – the science which aims to improve the human race through controlled heredity.
– Biochemistry – the study of chemicals and reaction that take place inside the living things. One of its numerous applications is DNA fingerprinting.
Biology has enormous applications in other branches of science. It forms an important part of the following –
– Agriculture – raising crops and livestock (cow, buffalo etc)
– Veterinary Science – treatment and surgery of animals.
– Marine Biology – study of life in the sea.
– Household Biology – study of household animals, insects etc, including how to prevent damage to our own body and to our belongings.
– Horticulture – science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers or ornamental plants.
– Sericulture – technique of producing silk by raising silkworms.
– Pisciculture – the technique of growing fish.
– Molecular Biology – interpreting biological events in terms of molecules in the cell.
– Biotechnology – the application of biological processes in technology. It includes areas such as biogas production, food processing, genetic engineering, antibiotic production, extracting of extracellular enzymes used as bio-detergents in laundry washing powders, vaccine production, anti bodies, tissue culture etc.
– Cloning – it is a rapidly advancing branch of biotechnology. Several animals have been cloned in which a body cell is used with no involvement of the male sperms. It also includes modifying crops easier to grow and improving their quality.
– Bioengineering – which includes techniques like the making of artificial limbs, joints and other parts of the body from metals or plastic etc? It also includes modifying crops easier to grow and improving their food quality.
– Nuclear Biology – the study of the effects of radioactivity on living things which is also called Radiation Biology.
– Space Biology – the study of survival problems of living things in outer space.
– Exobiology – it is one the newest sciences, which contemplates to study life elsewhere in the universe.
– Genomics – the study of genomes as opposed to individual genes. Genome is the entire DNA sequence of an organism.
– Bioinformatics – management and analysis of biological information stored in databases.
– Biometrics – the verification of a person by his certain body features such as the patter of iris in the eye and behavioral characteristics.
An Article By: HappyChappy And SumoPunk.