A preliminary problem with current space propulsion is that rockets must expel mass to accelerate. Rocket efficiency increases with velocity of exhausting mass, and energy consumption increases with square of exhaust velocity. That means most of the energy goes away with the exhausted mass, which causes energy and propellants run out quickly, limiting space exploration to our solar system. For overcoming the inherent limits of the current expelling-mass propulsion, Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. has designed two innovative propulsion systems based upon phase-shifted electrodynamic waves for generating propulsion in deep space without infringing the classical laws of physics (action-reaction).
The Electrodynamic Space Thruster is a propulsion system which produces a propulsive force, using a sequenced pattern of phase-shifted oscillations via an array of dipoles, similarly to a multiphasic linear AC motor, running much faster, creating sideway electrodynamic drag, interacting with interstellar medium (gases, cosmic dust, electric/magnetic fields), and consequently, producing an astonishing acceleration. Its frequency is adjusted in function of Length of the array of dipoles (f ≥ c/L) for running as fast as light waves.
- The Phase Displacement Space Drive has two emitter antennas, phased 0° and 90°, and quarter-wave spaced (nλ+ λ/4), producing attraction force, mediated by EM waves, between space and antenna at one extremity, and repulsion force at another extremity, causing net thrust force toward one direction.
Both propulsion systems are very energy-efficient; however, for a long interstellar journey they must be powered by a dense and efficient source of energy, the CrossFire Fusion Reactor, which can be flexibly fueled with helium-3, lithium-6/7, deuterium, and boron-11. The CrossFire Fusion Reactor competently uses multi-megavolt electrostatic acceleration (low charge/mass ratio) postponing neutralization to outputs (low power consumption), which makes its scheme the most efficient in producing megawatts of electric power directly from nuclear fusion reactions with almost no radioactive waste.
Either Electrodynamic Space Thruster or Phase Displacement Space Drive powered by CrossFire Fusion Reactor can technically enable fast interstellar travel for the human race finally go anywhere in the outer space getting rid of a suddenly annihilation on Earth.