Body get glucose from food consumed either directly from sweet foods and carbohydrates or indirectly from other foods. The role of insulin is to help convert glucose into energy for cells by transferring the blood glucose into cells in need. If not required then the blood glucose is converted into glycogen and fat as energy reserves. If insulin is not secreted or secretions are not sufficient then metabolieme glucose becomes disturbed, causing blood glucose levels increase beyond normal limits. Excess glucose will be excreted through the kidneys into the urine, so called well with diabetes.
Based on the criteria of the ADA (American Diabetes Association), 1998, there were two tests that can be used as a diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus, based on examination of venous plasma glucose levels, namely:
* Blood glucose levels when (not fasting) is> (greater / equal) 200 mg / dl
* Fasting blood glucose levels> (greater / equal) 126 mg / dl. In oral glucose tolerance test (oral glucose tolerance) blood glucose levels checked again after 2 hours is> (greater / equal) 200 mg / dl. Term fasting on this is a state without food intake (calories) for a minimum of 8 hours.
While normal or not suffer from DM when fasting blood glucose level below 110 mg / dl (venous plasma). High levels of blood glucose can damage nerves and blood vessels to the heart. The condition causes diabetes mellitus may increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney failure and other complications. In addition, long-term effect is the occurrence of retinal damage resulting in impaired vision and even blindness.
Based on the causes and processes of the disease, diabetes mellitus can be classified into 4 types, namely:
1. Diabetes Mellitus Type I (insulin dependent)
In type I, pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin were damaged so as not to form insulin or who formed a little. Patients with type I DM is always dependent insulin injections. This type is mostly found in people under age 30, usually looks emaciated patients. The percentage of type I DM is 10-20%
2. Diabetes Mellitus Type II
In type II cells in the pancreas to form insulin but not enough to meet the needs of the body. Usually the patient is obese adults over 40 years. Type II is a condition inherited (genetic), patients usually have family members who are also affected. The percentage of type II DM about 80-90%.
3. Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy
The term used for women who suffer from diabetes during pregnancy and returned to normal after delivery. In severe conditions, diabetes during pregnancy can harm the fetus.
4. Specific types of diabetes
This type is caused by a variety of specific genetic disorders, diseases of the pancreas, drugs, chemicals, infections, and others.
The symptoms of diabetes mellitus in general, among which:
1. frequent urination with a lot of urine volume (polyuria).
2. often feel thirsty and want to continue drinking (polydipsia)
3. always feel hungry so often eat (polifagia)
4. body feels weak and lethargic, weight loss
5. eyepiece slightly changed so that blur vision temporarily.
6. Frequent tingling at night, especially on foot
7. itching and in case of difficult to heal wounds
The number of patients with type II diabetes mellitus in Indonesia tends to increase. This is in addition to genetic factors, diabetes mellitus type II is strongly influenced by environmental factors, including the form of lifestyle changes such as lack of physical activity and dietary shifts are turning to ready meals are high in fat. Excessive calorie intake and the condition is obesity cause the amount of insulin secreted is not sufficient to maintain glucose levels within normal limits so that the increase in blood glucose (hyperglycemia) and trigger the onset of DM.
Currently, treatment of diabetes mellitus who are directly directed to repair the damage of beta-Langerhans cells in the pancreas does not exist, so the DM is not completely curable, but can be controlled for blood sugar levels remain normal. Prevention of diabetes mellitus type II, the most important and effective way is through a healthy lifestyle is a diet low in calories and low in fat, weight loss for the overweight and physical exercise according to age and ability.
Some foods that should be avoided by people with diabetes mellitus, among others;
1. pure sugar such as sugar, palm sugar and syrup
2. honey, jam, sweets, jelly, candy, chocolate, full cream and sweetened condensed milk, soft drinks, ice cream.
3. Biscuits, cakes / sweet bread, dodol, fatty foods, shredded, beef jerky
4. Snacks that contain sugar or high-calorie artificial sweetener
5. Fruit juice and canned fruit in syrup solution
6. Cigarettes, alcoholic beverages
7. People with diabetes are encouraged to choose foods that contain natural fibers such as wheat bread, vegetables, beans, and fresh fruits.
8. Herbs are potent hypoglycemic can be used to help lower blood sugar levels in people with type II diabetes independent of insulin. Herbs are potent hypoglycemic include: Pare (Momordica charantia), Seeds of Mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni), Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata), Ceplukan (Physalis angulata), Cats Whisker (Orthosiphon aristatus), Brotowali (Tinospora crispa), Aloe Vera (Aloe vera ), Seed Jamblang / Duwet (Eugenia cumini).
Example Herbal Recipes
* 10 grams of bitter, cat whiskers leaves 30 grams, 15 grams ceplukan, 1 finger brotowali. All material is boiled with 800 cc of water until the remaining 400 cc, drunk to 2 times daily after meals.
* 200 grams of bitter melon fruit, boiled with 600 cc of water until the remaining 200 cc, after a cold drink water and eat parenya. Do it every day.