There are different methods used in preserving fish to prevent it from spoilage. These methods are chilling and freezing, salting, fish fermentation, drying and dehydration, smoking, caning and pickling and spicing.
Applying low temperature to fish could prevent the growth of some microorganism that will eventually prevent the fish from spoilage. This is done in chilling and freezing where fish is chilled and frozen in order for it to be preserve. This method involves the use of ice or the refrigeration technology which will eventually produce a zero degree Celsius temperature making some of the microorganisms unable to survive.
The method of salting also preserves the fish. Salting will result to the lowering of the water content which will eventually prevent the microorganisms from growing. In this method, the salts penetrate unto the fish tissues as water passes out; this process is called as osmosis.
Another method is the fish fermentation. In this process, the flesh of the fish is allowed to be ripe until it begins to disintegrate. With fermentation, the protein in fish will going to breakdown because of the enzymatic action; this process is called hydrolization.
Drying and Dehydration is another technique used in preserving fish. Because most of the microorganism thrives best in moist places, the absence of moisture in any environment minimized their development.
Drying involves the removal of the water from the tissues of the fish. This is done until moisture in the fish is extracted. It can be done naturally by the means of solar drying (through the heat of the sun). Dehydration is also a drying method but it uses an artificial heated air through a mechanical drier.
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Smoking is another method of preservation that at the same time provides a desirable flavor as well as color and aroma to the fish. Smoking preservation methods usually involves four processes namely; cleaning and leaching, brining, drying and the actual smoking wherein the fish is exposed to smoke.
Pickling and Spicing is a kind of preservation in which the fish is preserve with vinegars as well as by other spices. The pickling and spicing method preserve the fish because of the acetic acid in the vinegar that is used. This process does not only preserve the fish but also improves the fish flavor.
Another preservation method is through canning. In this process, the fish to be preserved is sealed in can containers or bottles. The fish undergoes heating before and after canning in order to eliminate microorganisms that could cause spoilage.